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Alas for him who never sees 
The stars shine through his cypress trees ! 
Vvho, ho^e/ess, lays his dead away, 
j\^or looks to see the breaking day 
Across the mournful marbles play ! 
Vvho hath not learned, in hours of faith. 

1 he truth to flesh and sense unknown. 
That Life is ever lord of Death, 

And Love can never lose its own ! 

— John Cjreenleaf Vv hittier, Jnow-bound. 





]Vlin,-rr a lujhiv dral is ,rroN,/hl. 
Wlun'rr /x .yiolrni „ iiohir llnnn/lit. 

Our linirls. in ,/l,i(l siiriirise. 

I'u ln,,lirr Ivrrls rise. 

Thr li,hil inirr nf drrprr souls 
hlln niir uininsl hrunj rolls. 

.\,nl lifts us inuurarrs 

Out of all meanor rarrs. 

Honor to 11, OS. irhosr or deeds 
TliNs lu'lp us ill our diiilii nerds. 

And I, II their orerpoir 

1,'uise us from irliat is loir! 

-Henry Wadsnorlli Lonijfellow . Santa Filoniena. 

Of all the ntfeetious of man. those irhirh eunnect him iritk 
.{nrestri/ are amoiiij the most natural an, I i/eneroiis. Thei/ 
enlanje the sjihere of hi< interests, miiltiidij his molires to 
rirliie. and i/ire intensitji h, his .sense of diitij to ijeiieratioiis 
to roiiie. till the iiereeption of otiti;iation to tliose irhieli are 

— Jo.iiah (J nine II. 

The onli) iray to do a thing is to do it. 

—WilJiam Painter. 



Preface, 5 

"Whither Goest Thou? " by Orrin Chalfant Painter ^ 

Reminiscences of William Painter, by Orrin Chalfant Painter 7 

William Painter's Patents, 3g 

Twenty-first Birthday Anniversary Poem, by Emilie Painter, 38 

William Painter, (from Baltimore, Its History and Its People), 41 

William Painter and The Crown Cork and Seal Company, by John T. Hawkins 44 

Genius That Succeeds, by William A. Lewis 52 

The Crown Cork Company, Limited, London, , . 57 

A Baltimore Enterprise, (from the Baltimore Sun,) .......... 60 

A Remarkable Patent Success, by Joseph J. O'Brien 62 

The Crown Cork and Seal Company, by John Mifflin Hood, Jr 64 

Resolutions Passed by The Crown Cork and Seal Co.. Concerning the Painting of the Portrait of 

William Painter 96 

To IMy Father, by Orrin Chalfant Painter 101 

Dedication of Hospital School 107 

Dr. Edward Painter, (from Descendants of Samuel Painter, 1699-1903, by Orrin Chalfant Painter), . 112 

Memoir of Dr. Edward Painter, (from the Friends' Intelligencer, Dec. 11, 187.5, by M. G. M.), . 114 

Louisa Gilpin Painter, (from Descendants of Samuel Painter, 1699-1903, by Orrin Chalfant Painter), 120 

Louisa Gilpin Painter, by Emilie Painter Jackson 122 

Among the Omaha Indians, by Emilie Painter (Jackson) 124 

Three Years Amongst the Omaha Indians, by Emilie Painter Jackson, 129 

A Visit to the Omaha Indian Agency, Nebraska, by Orrin Chalfant Painter 147 

[Engravings by the Baltimore-Maryland Engraving Co.] 

"The liriiig are (lie only dead; 

The dead live, — nevermore to die: 
And often, when we mourn them fled, 
They never were so nigh!" 

•Thr sirol-c of Dnilh is but a Inndhj froM. 
Wliich craclcs the shell, and leares the l-ernel room 
To germinate." 

There Is no death .' What seems s( 
This life of mortal hreath 

Is hut a snhurh of the life ehjsian. 
Whose iiorhil ire rail Death. 

-Henry Wadirorlh Longfellow. Uesignation. 

Build Ihee more stately mansions. my soul. 

.is the swift .reasons roll! 

Leare Ihy low-raulled pa.<t ! 
Let each nrir leuiple. nohler than the last. 
Stmt thee from heurrn with a dome more ra.?t. 

Till til oil at length art free, 
Learing thine outgrown ■•<hell liy life's unresting sea! 

—Olirer Wendell Holmes. The Chauihered Xaulilas 


Ill the proiluctioii of till- lidok 1 have nhcycd the natural iiiiinilse to preserve 
aceouuts of two beiiefaetors of the human race, inabiuueh as they were my pro- 
genitors. My father, William Painter, and his father, Dr. Edward Painter, were 
endowed with great energy, although I believe that their lives were undulj' shortened 
by overwork. Father died in his sixty-eighth year, and grandfather in his sixty-third 
year. Memories of them are treasured by many, and many have passed on who 
clasped their hands. For those who cherish such recollections and for those who did 
not know them personallv and desire to know more of their lives, this work is com- 

Ill the struggles of life of the present and on-coming generations, the very near 
aspects which some, including myself, possess, may become dimmed or lost lest these 
steps be taken. In looking over old ])hotographs which I have zealously cared for, 
T have found that many aic fading. The original negatives of a number were 
destroyed in the fire of 11)04, iiiid it is thus apparent that these visual representa- 
tions of loved faces and closed chapters, as well as biographical matter concerning 
them, should be given over to the arts of the engraver and printer without delay. 

Further records relating to them may be found in "Descendants of Samuel 
I'aiiitcr, 1699-1903," which was edited by me during the latter year, ami in the (xenealo- 
gies of tlie Gilpin Family, which are easily obtainable. 

ill the succeeding pages are articles taken from various pu])lications, preceded by 
my own incomplete review of my father's life. Sonic repetitions will be noted which 
cannot well be avoided. In my Reminiscenses 1 have confined myself princi])ally to 
matter not contained in the extracts from other jiublications. 

0. C. P. 

Baltimore, June IS, 19U. 


Bv Orriii Chalfant Painter. 

The milestones now are tlying by 

And age comes on apace; 
I wonder how it feels to die 

And leave this (luccr old place. 

The faces of my friends all say: 

"We're on our road somewhere, — " 

Do I appear as worn as they 
Am(\ (|nite so fnll of care? 

I know 1 do, as worldly sight 
Makes man to man appear. 

For time and tide the yonth will blight 
Of all who linger here. 

Other scenes are fairer, far. 

Beyond the simset's glow; 
The kindly beaconing evening star 

Will gnido me right, I know. 

'T is all amiss to monrn the dead, 

Or hesitate to leave. 
For grander spheres are on ahead 

Which mind cannot conceive. 

Speed) and pen cannot reveal 
My tlionglit^, try as I may; 

With my inmost sense I feel 
A coming, l)rigliter day. 

By Orrin Chalfant Painter. 

{Miinli in. lOlJi.) 

Williani Painter was Ixnii at Triadelphia, Montgomery County, Maryland, No 
vemljcr JOtli, ISilH. His parents were Dr. Edward Painter and Louisa Gilpin Painter. 
Tliey had seven children, in the following order: Helen, (who died in infancy), Clara, 
William, Emilie, Joseph Gilpin, Samuel Giipin and Charles, ( who also died in infancy). 
Clara married Rohert Chalfant and hail se\-en children, of whom two are living, 
Edward and Lottie. Emilie married William II. .Jackson, and had three children, 
Clarence, Louise and Harriette, all of whom ai'e living. »Samuel Gilpin married Mary 
Hanway. They had hut one child, Lawrence Gilpin Painter, who is a i)rofessor of 
English literature. Joseph married Ida League, and died, leaving mi children. 

In 1840, when William Painter was two years old, his father moved from Triadel- 
phia to Herring Run, near Baltimore. Here my father's early boyhood days were 
spent on the farm. On March 17, 1849, his father moved from Herring Run to B^alls- 
ton, Harford County, Maryland, where he again went to farming. My father was fond 
of recalling this date, and it was easy to remember, as it was on Saint Patrick's Day. 
He was ten years of age at the time and the beautiful green hills of Harford offered for 
him many pleasing prospects. It was while his father was thus engaged, from 1849 
until 1853, that William Painter, went to the Friends' School there, which was in the 
yard of the Friends' Meeting House. His first teacher was William W. Taylor, (a 
brother of Bayard Taylor, the traveler and writer). His next teacher at that school 
was Jeremi.di J. Starr, of Fern Glen, Pa. Mr. Starr is n<iw living with Ids daughter, 
at Monkton. Baltimore County, Md. His third teacher at that school was Mary 
Harlan, (daughter of William Harlan, of Fallston). 

My father, then, in 1853, at the age of fifteen, left Fallston and went to Wilming- 
ton, Delaware, where, during the winter of 1853-38.34, he went to Alsopja's School, at 
the corner of Tenth and Tatuall Streets, boarding with his grandfather, William 
Painter, at Seventh and West Streets. In the winter of 1S54-1855 he went to school 
to Clarkson Taylor, (who was a brother of Jonathan K. '{'ayloi), opjiosite the 
Friends' Me(4ing House, on West Street, (where the Friends' School now is), where 
he finished his education early in Jime, 1855. 

On June 20, 1855, he went as an apprentice in luisiness witli l'>le, Wilson & Pyle. 
manufacturers of patent leather, in Wilmington. The two I 'vies in the tii-m were Cyrus 
and William, the hitter being an uncle of my father. (Howard Pyle, the artist and 
writer, who dieij Xo\'. 9, 1911, in Florence, Italy, was a son of William Pyle, and con- 
sequently my father's first cousin,) During the two above years he boarded with his 
grandfather, William Painter, He boarded with his uncle John Painter at Seventh 
and Tatnall Streets, for a short time. He then went to board with Joseph Pyle for 
four years, from 1856 until November, 1859, during which time lie worked in the 
leather-currying shop of his uncle, Joseph Pyle, The residence of Joseph Pyle, at 
that time, where he boarded, was at Seventh and Orange Streets, on the opposite 
corner from John Painter's. His ajiprenticeship with Joseph Pyle ended November 
20, 1859. Of the three Pyles above named, Cyrus was the oldest, William was next, and 
Josei")h was the youngest. 

ReDiiiiiscoices of ]ViUia»i Pahilcr. 

Diiriii,^' his youuger days, in Wilmington, he belonged to "The Jnnior Delniting 
Society of the Young Men's Association," of which the other members were: Edward 
B. Taggart, Alfred Gawthrop, James D. Strickler, Benjamin AVebb, Richard H. AVebb, 
Jonatlian K. Taylor, Henry Gawthrop, R. H. Jones, A. A. Capelle, B. A. Houston and 
Joshua Pusey. 

William Painter was also the editor of "The Every Monday Night, a Repository 
of Science, Literature, Sentiment aud Fun," which was written, (instead of being 
printed), in 1860. He was also a member of "The Morpliy Chess Club." 

My father, during this period, invented a machine to fold sheets of iJajier for 
books, etc. Mr. Jonathan K. Taylor, who was a veiy deni- and chise friend of my 
father, was shown tlie working model, which worked ahnost perfectly. He urged my 
father to apply for a patent on it without delay. There were, however, one or two 
points about it which my father wished to perfect, and upon these he worked until 
he ap]ilied for a patent a short time after. He then found that Cyrus Chambers, of 
Chester County, Pa., had, a few months before, patented exactly the same ininciple. 
This wi\s an extremely profitable patent to Chambers and his invention is still l^eing 

It was while engaged in the liide and leather business in Wilmington, that he met 
his future partner in life. Miss Harriet Magee Deacon, the daugliier of a Philadel- 
phia wholesale hat and fur merchant. The meeting occurred at tiie farm of his great- 
uncle, Peter Wilson, at Fairville, Chester County, Pennsylvania, al)out ten miles from 
Wilmington, on a Sunday afternoon, July 11, 1859. Her father, Ephraim Thomas Dea- 
con, had then retired from mercantile business and was living upon his farm at Fair- 
ville, Chester County, Pennsylvania. William Painter was married in Philadeli)liia, 
on September 9, 186i. 

My mother, Harriet Deacon Painter, on her paternal side, is descended in the 
fifth generation from George Deacon, who was born in Essex County, England, in 
1642. He came to America in November, 1677, and settled in Burlington, New Jersey, 
where he married, December '12. 1(i9."], Martha Charles. Their son, John Deacon, mar- 
ried Hester Wills, Marcli J(), ITiifi; tlieir son, Samuel Deacon, married Mehitable Rogers, 
March 20, 1762; their son, Thomas Deacon, married Mercy Stiles; their son, Ephraim 
Thomas Deacon, married Louisa Alagee; their daughter, Harriet Deacon, married Wil- 
liam Painter. Ephraim Thomas Deacon lived in Burlington, New Jersey, where his 
ancestors had lived. 

Harriet Deacon Painter is descended, on her maternal side, in the third generation, 
from Dr. John Meer, who was born in Birmingham, England, on February 9, 1756. 
He was a physician of note and a friend of Thomas Paine. He was also a friend of 
Charles Willson Peale, who painted an excellent portrait of him, which we have in our 
home. Dr. .lohn Meer married Catharine Hassall, June 10, 1778, at Wolverhamp- 
ton, England, and thej' had nine children. He came to America and settled in Phila- 
deliihia in 1793, where his daughter Harriet, who was born in Birmingham, England, 
met and married Edward Magee, who was a Presbytei'ian and came from Giant's 
Causeway, Ireland, and they had nine children, of whom Louisa Magee was their 
fifth child. Louisa Magee married Ephraim Thomas Deacon, September 4, 1839, and 
thev had six children, of whom mv mother, Harriet Deacon Painter, was the second 

My father returned, in the fall of 1859, to Fallston, Harford County, Maryland, 
where, for several succeeding years, he lived with his father, Edward Painter, 
who, having sold his farm during his son's absence in Wilmington, had become the 
proprietor of a grocery and general merchandise store, the finn name of which was 
Painter & Watson. This store he had bought of Robert Titus. Grandfather was post- 

^^ 11,1,1AM Paintku. 




Neinhiiscences of WilUain Painter. 

master, aud father was assistant postmaster and joined in the Inisiness of the store 
with his father. During the evenings, after working hours, he found time to exercise 
liis ability as a mesmerist with the loiterers in the store. His best subjects were 
four men, two of these being Emmet Duvall and Peter Schroff, (who was a brother 
of John Schroflf, the village saddler). These men, when hypnotized, would hoe, go 
fishing in a boat, fall overboard aud swim, make speeches, make love, stand on 
chairs and crow like roosters, have stiff legs, — in short, would do anything they were 
told to do. This faculty he ceased to exercise in later years. While at Fallston, 
father worked on his blacking-boxes, the tops and bottoms of which were made of 
paste-board, saturated with asphaltum, (tin being very expensive at that time), vari- 
ous kinds of lamps, shoe-tips and his counterfeit coin-detector, occasionally making 
visits to Baltimore to perfect the machinery incidental in their manufacture. At that 
time it was necessary for him to travel by stage to Magnolia, a distance of ten miles, 
in order that he might take the train for Baltimore. 

I may here state that he found the name of "Orrin Newton" upon an old lamp- 
burner with which he was experimenting, and taking a fancy to the name "Orrin," 
applied it to me, although he knew nothing about Orrin Newton, except that he was 
the patentee. 

It was at thl- stage of my fntherV i-arcov tluiT the Civil War broke out. Grand- 
father maiiitaiiKMl the pence | iriiici ] ile> of tile Society of Fricuds and never served in 
anv military capacity, lie was oiice cnll(Ml ui)on to pay a war tax of about two hun- 
dred dollars, which he refused to do. Whereupon, the tax officer threatened to take 
a valuable horse of his. This he did not do, however, for, as my grandfather after- 
ward discovered, his friend, Stevenson Archer, had paid the tax for him. Grand- 
father and father were in sympathy witli '-Tlie Union." Upon one occasion, when 
I was six weeks old, my father went to Wilmington to meet my mother and bring me 
to Fallston. I was born at Fairville, Chester County, Pennsylvania, at the home of 
her father, A])ril (i, 1864. When they reached Perryville, on the P. W. & B. Rail- 
road, on tlie oi)ii()site side of the Susquehanna River, from Havre de Grace, they 
found that llie --Rebs" had torn up the tracks over the bridge, and they had to drive 
in a round-about wa>- to get liack to Fallston. My father was never draughted for 
military service. I believe that he wouhl not have served, even if he had been 
draughted, for his principles were those of his father's. 

My father was unfamiliar with the use of fire-arms and never went out to kill 
anything for sport, although, when a boy, he went fishing. He collected birds' eggs, 
as did many country boys in those days. 

Edward Painter kept the store in Fallston for eight or ten years, and then sold 
it to James Watson. Joseph G. Painter, the son of Edward Painter, then went into 
partnership with James Watson and the name of the firm was Painter & Watson. 
James Watson sold it to J. Wilson Moore. The building was afterwards destroyed 
by fire. It was opposite the Friends' Meeting House. 

One cold day, while grandfather was keeping the store at FalUton. -lohn Lan- 
castei- came in. "John," said grandfather, "thee ought to have a jiair of nice, warm 
gloves." "Thank thee," said John, "I will take a pair," and he did. That was one 
on grandfather. 

I remember the store quite well. There were shelves on each side of the front 
doors, upon which were displayed articles of utility which were taken in every night. 
There was a rain-barrel under the eaves, in the rear, which was quite an attraction 
to me. I can never forget the black iron dog-handled knife with red spots on it. 
which grandfather gave me. It would crt cheese very well, and wood with ditirt- 
cidtv. I was five years old when grandfather gave up the store. 


(PllOTOrJK.VPllED H-\- .I<)>~KI>I1 .IF.A>.>i. .lANlARY. IKCl.) 

AI.l-UKI) CiA>VTIIROP. ED-\VAKI> H. TAC;<;.VRr. >VlI.I,IA.M Paixti 

Re))ii)iis(t')ices of WiUia)>i Painter. 

In March, 1865, William Painter moved with his family, (wife and son Orrin), 
to North Central Avenne, in Baltimore, the second door above Preston Street, on the 
east side, at which house his daughter Helen was born. At this time he was chiefly 
occupied with his blacking-box invention and with his riveting machine. It was op- 
erated with a treadle and riveted by means of a hammer which was brought down 
where the edges of the pieces of tin were to be joined, thus obviating the necessity of 
soldering, which was then a more expensive operation. He then, in 1867, went into 
the employ of Murrill & Keizer, at 44 North Holliday Street, (old number), this build- 
ing long since having been demolished. It was almost opposite to where the old City 
Hall now is, whic-h building is a cherished landmark. He began as foremau of Mur- 
rill & Keizer's machine shop without ever having served an appretieeship in the 
manufacturing of machinery, owing to his knowledge of mechanics and engineering. 
He then moved to North Exeter Street, near Low, which location was more conveni- 
ent to his place of Imsincss. While at Murrill & Keizer's, on Friday morning, July 24, 
1868, the flood (iccun<Ml. .lones' Fals overflowed its embankments and inundated Har- 
rison Street and Marsh ]\Iarket Space. On that occasion the men got out of the sec- 
ond-story windows of the shop and made their escape on improvised rafts. Stevenson 
& Plunkett's machine shop was opi^osite Murrill & Keizer's. Flynn & Emrich were on 
the same side, at the corner of Saratoga Street, and the Middle District Watch House 
was opposite Flynn & Emrich 's. Joshua Regester & Sons subsequently occupied this 
site and their buildings were destroyed by fire. I remember very well the perpen- 
dicular oscillating-cylinder engine which ran the shop, a wooden naodel of which I 
used to play with. 

In those days Barnum's and Forepaugh's Circuses used to show on Belair lot. 
There was one ring and we were not distracted with a multiplicity of attractions at 
once. Barnum's Circus generated its own current and used its own electric lights, 
which were a feature of the show, and had a talking-machine, which said "Eliza," 
"America" and "Europe" very glibly. Then there were "cannibals" and Prof. Wise 
made balloon ascensions from the lot. Father usually took us, and once, when he was 
too Imsy to go, i\lr. Keizer took Helen and me. Mr. Lewis R. Keizer and Mr. James H. 
Murrill were the incorporators of the firm. Mr. Murrill died on December 31, 1870, 
and Mr. Keizer on March 30, 1902. Mr. Keizer lived at Waverly and father used to 
take us out there now and then on Sunday afternoons on the double-decked horse-cars. 
I sometimes wore a pique dress, which I usually managed to soil without delay. Mr. 
Keizer was very musical and used to teach the Sunday-School children to sing. Mr. 
Joseph A. Bolgiano also lived in Waverly and was an intimate friend of father's. 

Father used to take us all to Ford's G-rand Ojiera House to see Haverly's Min- 
strels, also Camcross & Dixie's troupe and others. We enjoyed the "darkey min- 
strels" almost more than anything else, except Christmas. Father always made 
great ado over Christmas and never failed to have a tree for us. It was usually 
erected in a corner of our bedroom, behind a suspended sheet, while we were asleep, 
and great was our excitement upon awakening. I still have the magic lantern and 
all the slides, which I received when seven years old. I had a gun which exploded 
percussion caps and shot a stick and with this I hunted cats and scared them more 
than I hurt them. We used to play with some things which father made while a boy, 
in Wilmington. One of these was a little windmill which contained flour, and which, 
wlien blown, instead of operating the windmill, would throw flour upon the one blow- 
ing it. Another was a ring with a setting in it, which was worn upon the little fin- 
ger, which was attached to a cylinder containing water, held unseen, in the hand, 
which was discharged by a piston operated by the thumb, upon unsuspecting ob- 
servers. Father had a portable billiard-board upon wliich he played billiards with 


>Vii.i.iAM l»,\iNii:u". AHoi r 1KC>( 

BeDiiiiisceiice.^ of William Puiuter. 

his friends, when it was hiid npon the (lining'-rooni table. We sometimes i^layed 
parlor-croquet upon it. We nscil to play 'Fox and Geese" and "Mill-Morris," two 
very good games which I never ^(■(' nowadays. He made me a pop-gun, which cut 
little pieces out of slices of a potato, and afforded much amusement. He also made 
us whistles of willow and reed-grass; in fact, we never suffered from want of amuse- 

The sound of the beating of dough for Maryland biscuits was heard in the land 
far more often then, than it is now. It was, with us, usually a sign of company. Also, 
••Sally T.unn" was in much favor. We were rather unhappy when father and mother 
used to leave us to go to tile "Peabodv Lectures," which were a very important 
institution during the past generation. Sometimes they went to lectures at the Mary- 
land Institute, which was then over Marsh Market. They used to go there to hear 
John B. Gough, the famous temperance lecturer, and Thomas DeWitt Talmage, the 
Brooklyn divine. Father used to take Josh Billings' "Old Farmer's Allminax," 
wliich ])re(licte(l: "Perluips rain; perhaps not." He also read Mark Twain's lat- 
est effusions to us. He was also very fond of Shakespeare, Poe, Byron, Burns, 
Moore, and Campbell, and often read to us from them. Also, from Hans Chris- 
tian Andersen's beautiful fairy tales. --Tlie Raven," as read by him, made a great 
impression u]ion me. He used to I'all on .Mrs. Mai'in Clemm, at the Church Home 
and Inlii-iiiary. (,n IJroadway. where slie told liim all about her son '•Fddie" Poe. In 

1868 she gave him a daguerreotyi f Edgar Allan Poe, and told him that it was the 

last that was ever made of him, and requested him never to part with it. It is now 
in my possession and I prize it very highly. I also have a letter which Mrs. Clemm 
wrote to father, July 18, IBGfi, asking his assistance, wliich was always forthcom- 
ing, and often when unsolieited. I also have a Hute wliieli father used to play for 
us in those days. 

In 1S74, Mr. William C. Wood, jiateiit attorney, became intiuialely associated 
with William Painter in the writing \\\) of his patent sjiecifications, chiefly, at that 
time, with regard to the many pumps and valves which William Painter then 
and thereafter invented. Mr. William C. Wood was. from this period, a warm and 
trusted friend of William Painter, not onlj^ professionally, but in a personal way, 
for the remainder of W^illiam Painter's life. On October 6, 1874, with William C. 
Wood as his attorney, William Painter obtained several patents upon valves and 
pumps for emptying cesspools, etc. These embodied the fundameiffal in-incijiles upon 
which his Odorless Excavating A]iparatus sy.stem was based, which immediately be- 
came a pronounced success. Of this puni]) liis attorney, l\lr. William C. Wood, says, 
that it was a mai-vel when invented and built, and that it remains so to this day. 
When provided with a few feet of flexible suction pipe, and mounted on top of a 
long narrow tank filled with water, and oi^erated for exhibition, it freely raised wa- 
ter and discharged it back into the tank. A long piece of rope, about an inch in 
diameter, was put into the water, with one end of it pushed within the suction pipe. 
Upon working the pump, this rope passed upward and out, step by steji, with water in 
but little less than normal qvrantity. Then a straight, smooth clotlies-i>ole. seven or 
eight feet long, was similarly carried through the pump with nearly a normal quan- 
tity of water. Aftei'wards, an old hoop-skirt, folded and knotted, took the same 
trip without delays. Such operations as those were im]iossil)le with any prior 
pump, and with none built since, unless it be an imitation, in essential features, of 
])rinciples which were novel in the Painter pumj). 

From Exeter Street, in 1875, we moved to North Eutaw Street, above Madi- 
son Avenue, in the block where Mount Calvary Church is, at the top of the hill. 
One Christmas, while we were there, Helen was given a table and set of dishes, 





Reminiscences of WiUiani Painter. 

and fatlier gave me the grandest red wooden veloeii^ede that ever was. One Sat- 
urday night, before Christmas, he wanted to get me a toy steam-engine, and we 
walked down Eutaw Street to Baltimore Street, and along Baltimore Street to 
Broadway, visiting all the toy-stores en route, for this purpose, but we could not 
find one. I got one afterwards, however, which had l)een ordered for me. Now- 
adays it is much easier to find mechanical toys than it was then. I am quite sure 
that children were just as happy when I was young, as many are to-day, who have 
a greater variety of toys than we had. I always had a workshop wherever we lived, 
and made many toys with my tools. I had, in 1871, returned from a visit of six 
months to the Omaha Agency, in Nebraska, where grandfather Painter was the In- 
dian Agent and postmaster on the Omaha Reservation, about seventy miles north 
of Omaha, wliere the happiest days of my life were siient. Grandfather was appointed 
Omaha Indian Agent by President Grant, and served in that capacity from 1869 until 
1873. His jihysical endurance was severely taxed and he returned to Baltimore, where 
he came to live with father. While with us, on Eutaw Street, he was stricken with 
paralysis. While there, Mr. Theodore T. Gillingham, his successor, brought twelve 
Omaha Indians to Wa.shington to see the President about their lands. They were then 
brought by Mr. Gillingham to our house to see grandfather, who gave them a water- 
melon feast. They were wrapped in their blankets and carried their tomahawks, 
which also served as pipes. Needless to say, they attracted much attention. They 
were quartered at Miller's Hotel, which was on South Paca Street, not far from the 
Concordia Opera House, both of which buildings have since disappeared. All this 
was in 1875. (See matter regarding Dr. Edward Painter in this book.) 

While we lived on Eutaw Street, Helen and I were sent to the Friends' Elemen- 
tary and High School, wliich was on Lombard Street, between Howard and Eutaw 
Streets. "Cousin" Eli M. Lamb was the principal and all the teachers were "cous- 
ins." Grandfather sometimes spoke in meetings, but as his health failed, he was 
obliged to cease doing so. The scholars attended meeting for one hour in the morn- 
ings on Fourtli-days, or Wednesdays. The men sat on one side and the women on 
tl'e other. 'Hiere was a i)artition which was sometimes lowered between them when 
occa.-ion required. Tlie elders faced the meeting and wore broad-brimmed hats, and 
the wdineii wore gray bonnets, and tlieir garb was very simple. When one arose to 
pray, we all arose and turned our backs upon them and toward the street. Cocoa- 
matting was upon the floor and cushions were ujion the benches. There was a time 
when these comforts were not regarded as necessary. Father, mother, Helen and I, 
often went to First-day meetings. Father sometimes worked out his inventions in 
meeting when there was no speaking. Grandfather and grandmother moved to Mrs. 
Daniel's boarding-house on Lexington Street soon after grandfather had been stricken 
with paralysis. He died while on Lexington Street, September 29, 1875, and his 
transition was the first serious loss I had ever felt. 

From Eutaw Street we moved to Bolton Street, east side, between Lafayette 
Avenue and Mosher Street, a))out half-way down the block. While there, in 1876, we 
attended the Centennial, in Philadelphia. In the summer of that year we spent sev- 
eral weeks with cousin Philip T. Stabler, near Sandy Spring, Montgomery County, 
Maryland. While there, father invented a set of ( utting-blades for a reaper, a model 
of which I now have. At this time he also invented a si)ring curtain-roller, and a 
lock for double doors. 

On April 6, 1877, we moved to Kli^li Bolton Street, two doors from Wilson. Old 
Mount Hope was at the north end of Bolton Street and Spence's Place was at the 
south end. Brooke's College was on Park Avenue between Wilson and Laurens 
Streets, on a high hill, opposite to where the Friends' Meeting House now is. There 



Reminiscence!^ nf WiUiow Painter. 

were vacant lots all around ns which afforded cliildren opportunities to play in a nat- 
ural and healthful way. Helen and I went for some years to St. Peter's P. E. Sunday 
School, on Druid Hill Avenue and Lanvale Street, while Eev. Dr. Julius Grammar 
was the pastor of that church. 

Chess was father's favorite game and he often played with his uncle, Charles 
Painter, who lived at wings' Mills. He often, also, played euchre and cribbage with 
him. Uncle Charles had a very practical mind and they were frequently mutually 
interested in various projects. Helen and I often spent week-ends at Owings' Mills 
with uncle Charles' and uncle Milton's families. Uncle Milton was the pioneer 
manufacturer of ice cream which was sold in Baltimore and had a store on Lex- 
ington Street, between Charles and Liberty Streets. Uncle Charles lost his sight. 
Uncle Charles and uncle Milton were brothers of my grandfather. Dr. Edward Painter. 

At this time father was experimenting with multiplex telegraphy, telephonic 
apparatus, steam-boiler damper regulators, and gauge-cocks, hydraulic pumps, various 
kinds of coal-oil lamp-burners, and his hydrostatic water-joint. His brain, apparently, 
was never at rest. 

Father was very fond of hunting arbutus and sometimes, on Sundays in the 
spring, used to hire a horse and carriage and take us out in the country for that pur- 
pose. Among other places, we went to Hall's Spiiiigs, (ni the Harford Road, which 
was then a popular resort for excursionists and ]iiciiii'kcis. He also took us to Herring 
Run, where he used to live, when a young boy, on his father's farm and showed us 
where his father used to stand at the bottom of the hill on the edge of the corn-field, 
and call up to him at the top of his voice, "Willie, bring down the big round bas-ket!" 
Father would also take Helen and me to "Violet Hill" to hunt arbutus. This pretty 
spot was over-looked by the observatory in Druid Hill Park, but alas, like many other 
attractive scenes, it has been levelled to accommodate the all-i)ervading advance of 
Iiumanity in search of homes. 

The greatest event which happened while we UvimI on Bolton Street, was tlu' birth 
of my sister p]thel. This was indeed an important era for all of us, and we were made 
happier and younger by her coming. 

One night, the roof of the house on Bolton Street was blown off, during a severe 
storm, and we were thoroughly soaked. For several weeks the plasterers and paper- 
hangers were busy repairing the damage. 

About this time, in 1880, Murrill & Keizer were building their new factory at 
202-204-206 Nortli Holliday Street. I was an apprentice in their machine shop, hav- 
ing spent six months in Denvei-, during which I had travelled around a great deal 
in the Rocky Mountains with my uncle, William H. Jackson, photographing. I had 
gone to Shortlidge's Media Academy, in Chester County, Pennsylvania, for a year, 
and to the Baltimore City College for two years, and had also learned something of 
the electrical business in a practical way, as well as having done mechanical draught 
ing for engineers. 

I cannot say that father's inventive faculty has been transmitted to any of us, 
except in the slightest degree. Ethel invented a mouse-trap and showed her plans 
to father, who explained to her that it was so complicated and expensive to make, 
that it was better to let the mouse go. 

I have one patent, dated September !», 1!)(I2, on a "jjabel for Bottles, etc.," \\\nn\ 
which I never realized anything. In my work-shop I i)roduced many small contiiv 
ances and conceived several ideas which I later found had been invented and pat 
euted by others, for example, the jumping rabbits which we see at Easter. Mine, 
however, was intended to be a frog. T made the niodi'l out of an old clock spring 



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UV .lANVlHU, . 

>Vii.i,iAM Painter. 

(photi)c;kai>hed h-v PKRKINS, NOVEMBKB ! 

Reminiscences of William Painter. 

and wound it up and set it down. It took one jump, flew to pieces and that was 
tlie end of it. I invented a basin-stopper, designed to be lifted from the back of the 
basin, before I had ever seen the ones which are now being used. Also, an elongated 
match, whicli \vtm\n Iturn different colors when it was struck; in this I also found 
that 1 lia<l been anticipated. Then I got up a smoke-fumigator for insects, in which 
I had also been anticipated. It is becoming harder and harder to obtain patents 
on articles of general utility, for the simple reason that the field is already well cov- 
ered. It is unfortunate, l)ut it is nevertlieless a fact, that much good money is 
wasted by ()vci--cnthusiastic patentees, who see millions in their inventions. This 
over-stimulation has caused many a worthy man to lose his all. My father was often 
consulted by inventors in need of advice, and many he was obliged to discourage. 
He was often told that he might put out his own shingle as a patent attorney, know- 
ing as much as he did about the Inisiuess. However, he needed assistance, as it was 
not within human limitations that he could carry out all the intricasies of writing up 
his own i^atent specifications. 

While I was a school-boy I made a pair of horse-shoe magnet telephones and two 
carbon transmitters, or microphones, with which I telephoned to the cook in the 
kitchen. They worked perfectly and with them I could easily hear the ticking of a 

In all this kind of work I was encouraged by father, who liad fond hopes of 
making a civil engineer of me, but this was not so to be. I had not the physical 
strength and endurance to itrosecute the labor requisite to the attainment of success 
in this field. My inclinations were rather in the direction of becoming a physician, 
but I realized that in this also I could not have been a success, financially, at least. 
My grandfather. Dr. Edward Painter, graduated in medicine late in life and prac- 
ticed his profession with little thought of remimeration. He felt "the call of the 
wild," and went out upon the prairies of Nebraska to administer unto the Indians, 
more for their benefit, than for compensation. He was a graduate of the University 
of Maryland, at the corner of Lombard and Greene Streets, in Baltimore, and was 
then at the age of fifty-four. Upon the occasion of the graduation exercises, which 
took })lace at Ford's Opera House, he received his diploma amid great applause. A 
great pile of bouciuets lay upon the floor at his feet and around his neck was placed 
a large wreath. 

I was very fond of drawing and painting and i)roduced many original drawings 
at the recjuest of my father. A number of these which I drew at the age of six, were 
sewed together and are still in my possession. 

Father taught me to make an ^Eolian harp by jilacing silken threads between the 
window-sashes on windy days. He also took pleasure in performing electrical ex- 
periments whenever the air was highly charged with electricity in very cold weather. 
He took delight in all kinds of physical and chemical experiments. 

P^rom early manhood until the time of his death, father subscribed to the 
Scientific American, and during the latter years of his life to the Patent Office 
Gazette. These he read assiduously until late at night. We often had to call him 
to bed, as he would usually doze into a nap before he retired for the night. In the 
morning we often found his inventive designs drawn ujwn the margins of the Sci- 
entific American. 

He was fond of phi\ lug mrds, chiefly euchre, cribbage and poker, and often en- 
tertained lii> men friends with tliese diversions. He discovered that when all the 
names of the denominations ot one suit in the deck of cards are si)elled, that is, 
from one up to the king, inclusive, the total number of letters reijuired to spell them 




INTKli .\>1 

[|{S. >VII,I,IA.M II. .I.VtlviSKN. 


1 WROTK Tiin Omaha Inijian A.c;kncv 
!-i >viii<ii ai»i»i;ar in this book. 

Remitiiftcrnces of Williaiii Pnhtfcr. 

amounts to fifty-two, which is tlie number of cards in the deck. He was a member 
of the Athenseum Club during the latter part of his life. 

He was always active and nervous in temperament and not the least phlegmatic. 
He must, Ikiwcvci', have had a "Quaker foot," for I never saw him dance. Nor did 
I ever si'c him play the iiiano, read a novel or make a speech. He was modest and 
xmostcntatidus in everything. His be(p;ests were, for the most part, bestowed quietly 
and they were many. Generosity was a salient phase of his nature. He was fond of 
puzzles and problems and usually was successful in solving them. It was never nec- 
essary to draw a diagram of a joke in order to exjjlain it to him. He always had a 
lot of his own jokes up his sleeve. 

He had a habit of writing his ideas and making drawings and memoranda upon 
his cuffs, quite to the dismay of the wash- woman. He ate very little at mid-day; in 
fact, he was a small eater at all times. He usually sat cross-legged and sideways at 
the table, a position in which he seemed to enjoy a monopoly. He almost invariably 
wore a soft felt hat in winter. The conventional thing in Derby liats did not faze 

His favorite actors were Edwin Booth, Sol Smith Russell and Joseph Jefferson. 
He had met the latter two at Palm Beach, Florida, and knew Joseph Jefferson quite 
well. He owned one of Joseph Jefferson's paintings, which we have in the parlor. In 
it is a female figure carrying a basket. Father asked Joseph Jefferson what was in 
the basket, and Joseph Jefferson replied, "Whatever it is, it will keep." 

He also enjoyed very much John L. Sto<ldard's lectures and lectures upon all 
scientific subjects. 

He never failed to take an active interest in everything appertaining to the 
memory of Poe, and I acquired from him the habit of saving all clippings relating to 
Poe, to such an extent that I now have a large scrap-book full of articles concerning 
him. Upon one occasion he was reading "Annabel Lee" to my sister Ethel, who was 
sitting upon liis knee. When he had finished, Ethel was crying, and he asked what 
she was crying for, to which she replied, "I am so sorry because Annabel Lee is 

He sometimes went to hear Rev. John Sparhawk Jones, at the Brown Memorial 
Church, whose sermons were intellectual and often humorous. P^ather was not given 
to outward religious demonstrations. I never heard him pray; I occasionally saw him 
do it, however. What he wanted, he worked for. If he got it, he shared it with oth- 
ers. He never went into debt, but often helped out others who were so oppressed. 1 
never saw him intoxicated ; in fact, he cared very little for liquors of any kind. 

Father often met noted people and used to say that after he had become ac- 
ciuainted with them, they appeared quite human and just like other people. 

He once had occasion to secure an elk's head for the purpose of having mounted 
thereon a pair of antlers which his father had sent to him from Nebraska. In his 
search he came across a man who not only had a large and beautiful elk's head 
carved out of wood, but a perfect pair of horns as well. These were separate and 
were lying in an attic covered with dust. Father bought them at a bargain and had 
them mounted. They are now in the hall of our home and are the finest I have ever 

We also have in our hall an excellent i^rtrait of fatlier which was painted by 
Thomas C. Corner from life, while he was Secretary and General Manager of The 
Crown Cork and Seal Company. This was presented to Mother by the Directors of 
the Company and Mr. Corner painted another for The Crown Cork and Seal Com- 
])any, which" now hangs in their board room. After this I engaged Mr. Corner to 

Rcllii)lisrt'll(rs of WlUJiUii Pil'nifrr. 

paint a third portrait of father, and this I gave to the William Painter Memorial 
Children's Hospital School, where it may he seen in their reeeption-room. 

Father used to say that "The only way to do a thing, is to do it." What he 
conld not do well, lie did not do at all. He often told me that "A stitch in time 
saves eleven." He also had a way of saying that anyone avIio l)ore the name of 
"Pnrdy, Perkins, Popjohn, Lipsconil) or Simcoe," conld not possibly amount to 
anything. One Christmas I presented him with a drawing 1 had made of these 
handicapped personages, which he much enjoyed. 

I sometimes tell my friends that father graduated from the •'University of Hard 
Knocks." He certainly graduated at no other. His father had not the means to 
send him to college, and an ordinary school education was all he was able to acquire. 
He, however, was a great reader and was what is called "a self-made man." 

He was not a Mason and did not affiliate with any orders, except, for a while, 
with "The Order of the Golden Chain," whose chief function was to pay endow- 
ments to widows. 

Father had in the archives of his brain many un(levehi])ed ideas. He told me 
that he had invented wired glass, but never had found time to work on it. It is the 
kind we see in public buildings and is composed of meshes of wire incorporated with- 
in i)late glass. Of course the patentee must have done well with it. He had an 
"Everpoint" pencil and a method of fastening together small pieces of mica, in such 
a way that they might be made into sheets, but these ideas were never perfected. 

Some of his friends used to tell of an extemporized alarm which he once de- 
vised to afford him an hour's rest. He was at the house of a friend and had noth- 
ing to serve the purpose of awakening him but his own open-faced watch. This he 
laid upon the Inireau and uiion the dial he placed a match-stick in such a manner 
that it would l)e moved by the minute-hand and thereby ui)set a few delicately bal- 
anced artich's which would fall upon the floor and accomplish his purpose. The 
scheme worked successfully. 

He used to tell, himself, al)out the time when he went to sleep in a street-car 
and rode to the terminus, late one night. Then he got into the next returning car and 
went to sleep again and rode to the other terminus. Then he got out and walked 
home. He also told us how, one night, he had walked two squares past our house, 
absorbed in his thoughts. 

Father's mind was latterly devoted chiefly to bottle-stopi)ers. On April 14, 1885, 
he ol)tained a patent on a wire-retaining stopper, which was easily removed with one 
hand. This was called "The Triumph." It was at that time better than any other 
stopper in use. Then came his fountain ice-pitcher and his electric railway, in 1885. 
This latter, he said, came to him in a dream. I drew tlie Patent Office sheets for him, 
and it was patented, l)ut T do not know that it was evei' used. 

Then came his lir-t iiis]iiration which stanqied him as the ■•pioneer inventor" in 
the field of single-use bottle-stoppers. He patented the "Fxittle Seal" September 29, 
1885. This is a flat rubber disk which is pushed through the bottling-machine throat 
by a collapsible plunger into a retaining groove, within the head of the bottle, where 
it expands and remains tight. This rubber disk has a facing of canvas which is sat- 
urated with mineral wax, and prevents the contents of the bottle from coming into 
contact with and being injured by the rubber. It was originally extracted by means 
of special openers, or by means of any pointed instrument which was handy, and 
subsequently by studs, and loops, which were inserted therein to facilitate its extrac- 

Father was all the while performing his experiments at Murrill & Keizer's, where 
he had his office, and was practising his profession as mechanical engineer. I 






A.tTt).MATlC' Pt»VKU CU<»V>; M A< 11 INH I 




Reminiscences of WiUiaiii Painter. 

can see him now as lie walked up and down tiie shop in his shirt- sleeves. He 
did not wear suspenders. He would now and then take a piece of chalk and draw 
designs on the floor of the shop; then he would get up, give his trousers a tug and 
walk on, oblivious of everything else. About this time he got to smoking and said 
it helped him. I often took bottle-tools to the glass factory to have different kinds 
of grooves made in the heads of the bottles for him. Once he told me to go up the 
street and get several barrels to hold the "Seals." Business was now certainly look- 
ing up. We first sold them by weight and then by measure, knowing their weight 
and bulk by the gross. I went through tiie various phases of the business, helping 
him all I could. 

Father was now fairly awake to the requirements of the bottling industry. He 
realized the limitations of the "Seal" and set to work to surpass himself. 

It was in August, 1891, while on a visit to Narragansett Pier, with my mother 
and sister Helen, tliat his first conceptions of what is now the "Crown Cork" came to 
him. Upon his return in September, he told me that he had a new idea which he be- 
lieved would revolutionize all then existing methods of bottling, and explained it to 
me and told me to say nothing about it until the proper time should arrive. He kept 
working on it and obtained a patent on the ' ' Crown Cork ' ' February 2, 1892. After 
the idea of the Crown was perfected, of course it was necessary to devise means of 
applying it to the bottle, which he accomplished siiccessfully. Tlie mechanisms 
which he devised for this inuiiose, lie told me, had cost him more mental effort 
than the invention of the Ciown itself. 

In view of the fact that Tlie Bottle Seal Comi)any was now to take up the manu- 
facture of the Crown Corks, father told me to think up a name for tiie new company 
which was about to be formed, which, of course, he could have done himself. I wrote 
several names on a slip of paper which I thought would be appropriate. In this 
book will be found an illustration of this slip of paper containing these names, among 
which is the name of "The Crown Cork & Seal Co.," as first written. At the bottom 
is his writing, as he at first thought "The Crown and Seal Co." would suffice. The 
Crown Cork and Seal Company was incorporated April 1, 1893. 

Soon after tliis the Ccnniiany moved to 500, 502, 504, 506 East Monument Street, 
adjoining the building of the Brush Electric Light Company. One night the entire 
Brush Electric Light plant was destroyed by fire. A strong wind was blowing in the 
opposite direction from our factory and we narrowly escaped a similar fate. An 
annex was built to our factory and business rapidly increased. 

Our family, in the meantime, had, on April 2, 1891, removed to 1202 North 
Charles Street, having spent fourteen years at our last home on Bolton Street. While 
living on Charles Street, in 1893, I made thi-ee phonographic records of Father's 
voice, which I still have. In one he read parts of "Childe Harold," by Byron; in 
another he read part of "Tam 0' Shanter," by Burns, and in another he spoke to my 
Grandmother Painter, who was visiting us. 

It was on January 28, 1895, that father first suffered an attack of nervous pros- 
tration. He was in his office at the Monument Street factory. Dr. Bryson Wood 
was summoned and accompanied him home. Dr. Nathan R. Grorter then attended 
him and within a few months he was much improved. During this attack father re- 
quired that the house be kept quite warm, especially upon one very cold day, Febru- 
ary 9, 1895. I mention the date, as it was an important one to us, for at half-past 
one o'clock on that afternoon, the house caught fire from an overheated flue. I called 
out the Fire Department and several engines came. However, the Salvage Corps ex- 
tinguished the flames witliout the need of hose, which had already been dragged into 
the building. The house was rendered untenantable and we immediately removed to 


Reiuiiri.^rriires of William Painter. 

the Stafford. Soon after this, father, still beiii.i;- in a nervous condition, took a trip 
to Horida. Upon our return father first rented, and then bought, the country place 
of Dixon (\ Walker, a short distance above Pikesville, on the Eeisterstown Road, 
which we named "The Colonies." This was on April 26, 1895. 

We spent twelve summers at "The Colonies," moving back to town every fall, 
except the first. "The Colonies" was sold to Mr. James H. Preston, March 19, 1908. 

Father bought the residence, 1129 North Calvert Street, Septend)er :!, 1897, and 
we moved into it November 3, of that year. 

It was in June, 1901, that father sutt'ered another s(nious break-down and soon 
after made his second tri]) to lhiroi)e with memlters of the family, his fir-t trip hav- 
ing been in 1895. 

In the nieaiitime, during the middle of May, 1897, The Crown Cork and Seal 
Company had moved from its Monument Street factory to its new building at 1511- 
1523 Guilford Avenue, which had just been built by George Bunnecke & Sons. Dur- 
ing its erection, the Company occupied the machine shop in the rear, on Lanvale 
Street, which had been l)ouglit h-om the Union File Works. 

At tliis time 1 was at the high tide of my business activity. My functions were 
those of manager of the advertising of Tlie Crown Cork and Seal Company. I had 
charge (if the pnhli-hiim nf ratahiLiue-. advertising in the various Bottling Trade 
jounials, and ail k-iiids nt geniTal advertising. The public, as well as the Bottling 
Trade, wei'e to he instructe(l in the use of our single-use bottle-stoppers, which meant 
a breaking-away from old and unsanitary methods. I remained in this capacity un- 
til January 23, 1903, when I left the Company upon the same day that my Father re- 
linquis]ie(l his office as Secretiiry and General-Manager. 

The iiatent> of Tlie ( 'lown Cork and Seal Company w<^re protected l)y nnudi liti- 
gation, which called tor the most skilled legal talent. In the prosecution of this de- 
partment of the work. Col. William C. Wood, Gen. Ellis Spear and Mr. Robert H. 
Parkinson jiut forth their best energies. Books have been and might be written upon 
the legal acumen of these men in their business relations with the Comiiany. 

This account would be incomplete without reference being made to some of 
Father's co-workers. Notably among these was Mr. James L. Murrill, who was a 
bosom friend of his, and for many years asisted him in every way possible with his 
work. Also, Mr. John C. Murrill, a brother of Mr. James L. Murrill. was always 
very faithful in assisting him tn carry out his i.leas. Air. Robert A. Hall and Mr. 
Albert A. ( 'ar]ier assis1e(l him with his early expei-iment-. 

Mr. William C. Wood, tn whein relVr-iice has already been made, was a staunch 
and devoted friend ot my fatliei-, and sd remaineil until the last. 1 cannot adequately 
express the ini]>licit (■oididen((' which my fatlier placed in him. 

Mr. Thomas R. Alexander was also for many years a devoted friend of my father 
and was assistant secretary and manager, first of The Bottle Seal Company and then 
of The Crown Cork and Seal Company. 

Mr. Samuel G. B. Cook rendered valual)le services in introducing, first, the Bot- 
tle Seal, and afterwards the Crown Cork into Lond(Ui and throughout the United 
Kingdom, and subsequently into all foreign countries. He was, for some years, the 
manager of The Crown Cork Company, Limited, of London, and was instrumental 
in placing the Crown Cork with the Apollinaris Company and many other large 
users of bottle-stoppers. This work was very arduous and required excellent busi- 
ness ability. After many trips abroad, Mr. Cook returned to Baltimore, where he is 
now making his home. 

Mr. Emanuel E. Teale, Mr. Charles F. French, Mr. \'alentine Smith, Mr. Harry 
Westley, Mr. William II. Wheeler, and Mr. William W. Wentwoi'th, were also faithful 



1 ^^^Bi^ ^'^'x^Mf ^^'^^^ 

- a / 

- /. -; 

5 z !i 

Renuuiscences of WiUiani Painter. 

oo-workers. Mr. Gwyime E. Paiuter had charge of the ek'ctrieal installation of the 
plant. Mr. John T. Hawkins was the eonsultiii.u' engineer of the Company. 

Mr. King C. Gillette, now of "Safety Razor" fame, was once the New England 
representative of the Company, and his brother, Mott G. Gillette, was also a repre- 
sentative. Mr. Lewis S. Greensfelder was the Baltimore reiiresentative of The 
Crown Cork and Seal Company and his brothers, Josejih S. Greensfelder, Charles S. 
Greensfelder, and Ben. S. Greensfelder were travelling Rejjresentatives of the Company 
as were also Messrs. M. ]\Iorris, H. Scarborough, II. H. Penniman and George Eugene 
Sturgis. The representatives, in 1897, presented my father with a handsome gold 
headed cane. 

On May 7, 1906, my father bought the residence, 204 Ridgewood Road, Roland 
Park, from Col. John C. Legg, who built it. He did not live to accupy it, however. 

Father retired from The Crown Cork and Seal Company on January 23, 1903, 
having been Secretary and General Manager thereof from the time of its incorpora- 
tion, and of The Bottle Seal Company before it. 

From that time on his health was precarious and he sutfered much. He travelled, 
took long walks, automobile tri])s, and resorted to Christian Science, which afforded 
him temporary peace of mind. He had been to California twice, after giving up his 
active duties with The Crown Cork and Seal Company, first during the winter of 1903- 
1904, with Mr. William Ferris, Jr., of Denver, (formerly of Wilmington, Del.), and 
afterwards with members of his family, which was during the fall and winter of 
1904, when he visited the St. Louis Exposition en route to California, having taken his 
automobile with him. In January, 1904, he went to I^'lorida, and was there during the 
time of the Baltimore fire, which occurred on February 7, 1904. He had, in former 
years, made many trips to Florida, where he always regained health in some degree. 

On June 1, 1906, he was taken to the Johns Hopkins Hospital with the object 
of taking the rest cure under Dr. Lewellys F. Barker and competent nurses. An 
operation was found to be necessary, which was performed by Dr. Joseph C. Blood- 
good on July 4. From this he never rallied, and died on Sunday morning, at half 
past thi-ee o'clock, July 15, 1906. His last words were a (luotation from Scripture: 
' ' I am the life. ' ' 

The burial services took place on Wednesday, at 11 A. M., July 18, at the resi- 
dence, 204 Ridgewood Road, Roland Park Many beautiful floral tributes were 
received at the home. The services were conducted by tlie Society of Friends. Dr. 
O. Edward Januey and Col. William C. Wood spoke feelingly of his life and works. 
The interment took place in Druid Ridge Cemetery, near Pikesville. The honorary 
pallbearers were Gen. John M. Hood, Dr. Nathan R. Gorter, Col. William C. Wood 
and Messrs. Edward Stabler, Jr., William Ferris, Jr., Rufus W. Applegarth, James 
L. Murrill and John M. Wight. The active pallbearers were employees of Henry 
W. Jenkins & Sons. 

I can truthfully say that no parents could possibly be more loving and kind 
than father and mother were to my sisters and myself, and for their loving min- 
istration we shall never cease to be grateful. 

"His life was gentle and the elements 
So mix'd in him, that Nature might stand up 
And sav to all the world, 'This was a man.' " 




[This list, (continued on next page), is taken from a volume of Specifications of 
Letters Patent, issued to William Painter, in possession of Orrin C. Painter.] 


21,082— Aug. 

3, 1858. 


21,356— Aug. 

31, 1858. 


35,834— July 

8, 1862. 


39,102— June 

30, 1863. 


2,85-1— Feb. 

4, 1868. 


45,950— Jau. 

17, 1865. 


49,782— Sept. 

5, 1865. 


104.992— July 

5, 1870. 


122,847— Jan. 

16, 1872. 


125,841— April 

16, 1872. 


127,917— June 

11, 1872. 


133,048— Nov. 

12, 1872. 


141,587— Aug. 

5, 1873. 


155,667— Oct. 

6, 1874. 


155,669— Oct. 

6, 1874. 


155,668— Oct. 

6, 1874. 


155,670— Oct. 

6, 1874. 


160,700— March 

9, 1875. 


160,701— March 

9, 1875. 


160,702— March 

9, 1875. 


160,703— March 

9, 1875. 


160,704— March 

9, 1875. 


162,945— May 

4, 1875. 


163.238— May 

11, 1875. 


168,775— Oct. 

11, 1875. 


168,776— Oct. 

11, 1875. 


175,144— March 

21, 1876. 


175,145— March 

21, 1876. 


181,535— Aug. 

29, 1876. 


7.620— April 

17, 1877. 


187,411— Feb. 

13, 1877. 


193,029— July 

10, 1877. 


198,146— Dec. 

11, 1877. 


223,533— Jan. 

13, 1880. 


234,608— Nov. 

16, 1880. 


247,270— Sept. 

20, 1881. 


277,332— May 

8, 1883. 


269,225— Dec. 

19, 1882. 


315,655— April 

14, 1885. 


316,646— April 

28, 1885. 


320,679— June 

23, 1885. 


324,040— Aug. 

11, 1885. 


327,099— Sept. 

29, 1885. 


329,589— Nov. 

3, 1885. 

Fare Box. 

Railroad Car Seat and Couch. 

Counterfeit Coin Detector. 

Lamp Burner. 

Improvement in Lamp Burners. 

Material for making Boxes. 

Joining Sheet Metal Bands. 

Seed Sdwcr. 

Gauge Cocks for Steam Boilers. 

Lubricating Car Axles. 

Feed Water Regulator and Alarm. 

Oscillating Pumps. 

Pump Valves. 





Hose Coupling. 

Apparatus for Pump. 

Discharge Gate. 

Measuring Indicator. 

Foot Pipe for Suction Hose. 

Transit Tank. 

Transit Tank. 





Flexible Pump ^^alve. 

Counterfeit Coin Detector. 

Pump A'alve. 

Plaiting Machine. 

Pipe Joint. 

Soldering Tool. 

Marking Plug Tobacco. 

Lamp Burner. 

Machine for Sheet Roofing. 

Automatic Telephone Signal. 

Bottle Stopper Fastener. 

I'ountain Pitcher. 

Electric Railway. 

Bottle Stopper. 

Bottle Stopper. 

Lani]) Wick and Burner. 

William Painter'.^ Patents. 




283,356— Aug. 




438,708— Aug. 




438,709— Oct. 




438,710— Oct. 




438,711— Oct. 




438,712— Oct. 




443,728— Dec. 




449,822— April 




468,226— Feb. 




468,258— Feb. 




468,259— Feb. 




473,776— April 




514,200— Feb. 




528,485— Oct. 




528,486— Oct. 




528,487— Oct. 




540,072— Mav 




582,762— Mav 




605,334— June 




608,157— July 




608,158— July 




11,685— July 




609,209— Aug. 




613,936— Nov. 




615,099— Nov. 




619,336— Feb. 




619,337— Feb. 




619,338— Feb. 




625,055— Mav 




638,.354— Dec. 




643,973— Feb. 




671,228— April 




671,229— April 




671,2.30— April 




684,521— Oct. 




684,522— Oct. 




684,52.3— Oct. 




684,524— Oct. 




792,284— June 




792,285— June 




887,838— May 



Pulley Covering. 

Bottling Machine. 

Bottle Stopper. 

Bottle Stopper Extractor. 

Bottle Stopper Fastener. 

Machine for inserting Wire Loops in Seals. 

Tool for forming Necks for Bottles. 

Bottle Stopper. 

Bottle Sealing Device. 

Bottle Sealing Device. 

Bottle Sealing Device. 

Method and Means for Bottling Liquids. 

Cap Bottle Opener. 

Bottle Seal or Stopper. 

Bottle Seal or Stopper. 

Bottle Seal or Stopper. 

Bottle Stopper. 

Bottle Sealing Device. 

Sheet Feeding Machine for Punching ;Machine. 

Bottle Sealing Device. 

Bottling Machine. 

Bottle Stopper (Re-issue). 

Machine for Applying Coi'ks and Seals to Bottles. 

Appliance for forming Corrugated Caps. 

Bottle Closure. 

Gluten Compound. 

Gluten Compound. 

Gluten Compound. 

Closure for Sealing Bottles. 

Machine for Automatically Sealing Bottles. 

Automatic Appa. for Feeding Crowns. 

Process of Making Glutinous Compound. 

Process of Making Glutinous Compound. 

Process of Making Glutinous Compound. 

Composition of Matter. 

Gluten Compound. 

Gluten Compound. 

Composition of Matter. 

Method of Manufacturing Bottle Closui-es. 

Bottle Sealing Cap or Closure. 

]Machine for Making Closures for Bottles 

and the like. 

(Issued after decease.) 



{Dpdicatecl 1o wmiam Painter hii his sister. Emilie Painter. (Mrs. William H. ■Jaek.vm). Xorember 20, IH.^9.} 

Brother, dear, thy life's l)ri,<iht childhood, 

Seemiug to ns but a span. 
Now has vanished, — we hchold thee, 

Twenty-one! Thou art a man! 

Ever will that dear word, '■childhood," 

Be sweet music to thy ears, 
Callin.n- np thron.n'h retrosixn tion 

]\Icni(.rics (,r<lei)artcd years. 

Back thron.iiii time thy tlinii<;lits will wander 
When the years crowd thickly on. 

Gleaning from tliy snnn>- honrs 
Pleasures tliat are ]iast au<l gone. 

Now no more our hajjpy -choohdays 
Will l)e here, they loo liave passed; 

8h)wly in time's fading distance. 
They have vanished now at last. 

I remendxT. still remendier, 

In our wanton childish hours. 
How we chased tlie l)nttertiies 

Leading us among tlie flowers; 

How we wauih'red by the river. 
In the noon-day's scorching beam. 

And our hearts with pleasure bounding, 
Waded in the cooling stream. 

W( e unto tlie little minnows 

Tliat we caught witliiu our net, 
Quickly to the shore we bore them 

Willi our clothes all dnpping wet! 

How it touched our tender heartstrings 
When we saw them writhe in death; 

IIow we, hoping to restore them, 

In their months blew our warm breath. 

Tici'iiti/-/irsf Butlidaii Anniversary Poem. 

I oould now recall a volume 

From the pages of the past; 
When upon my memory's tablet 

One long- lingering look T cast. 

Tlien our hearts were free from sorrow, — 
We knew not one corroding care, 

But only waiting for the morrow 
Found our joyous moments there. 

Those bright bubbles now are bursting, 
How soon our fondest hopes decay! 

We see it in the fragile flower 

That blooms to li\-e Init for a day. 

Now no more in our home circle 

Will be tilled thy vacant seat; 
We no longer anxious listen 

For the eclio of tliy feet. 

But thou hast left us,— left us all,— 

And upon life's troubled sea 
Thy bark is cast ; but Oh, believe 

Thy sister's fond heart yearns for thee! 

Round thy pathway bloom sweet 
Whose rich fragrance scents the air; 

Tread softly on tliis gay parterre. 
Piercing tlioriis are lurking there! 

In thy heart's most inward recess 
Be the priceless gem of Truth; 

It will lie a guardian angel 

In tlie tempted i)aths of youth. 

Seek not fame, Oli, it will never, 
Banish from thy brow one care; 

It will lure thee for a season. 

But still its impress will be there. 

Tread not the halls where gilded splendor 
Thy ever searching eye will greet, 

Where the pealing bursts of music 
Beat a march to dancing feet. 

Then, Oil, then, the flowing golilet 

Will tempt thee with its sparkling win 

Bend thy knee not unto Bacchus, 
But at Religion's holv shrine! 

Twenty- first Birthdaii Anniversary Poem. 

I have often sat at even 
When the sun sinks in the west, 

Watching that bright orb departing 
As it slowly sank to rest, 

Throwing its descending rays 

Upward in the golden sky, 
Tinging the bright fleecy clouds 

With brilliant red, or purple dye. 

Thinking that, how bright must be 
The sunset of a Christmas even. 

As the rays of his pure life 

Sank slowly in a cloudless heaven. 

Oh, may'st thou follow not the footsteps 
Of the wayward who have trod 

Far from the paths of peace and virtue, 
But give thy youthful heart to God! 

These are thoughts I could not lianish, 
Tliey have come uusought by me; 

Fraught with prayers for thy best welfare, 
I have penned them down for thee. 



( Fniiii "Ilillllmurc: lis Uislmii mnl ils rrojili'." hi/ various coiltrihutoi 
b;/ Lewis II Is/oridil I'nblislnmj Coniixnii/. Xrir )'orl- and Chicago. 1'-. 

There are some men who take possession of the public heart and hold it after 
they have gone, not by flashes of genius or brilliant services, but by kindness and the 
force of personal character, and by steady and persistent good conduct in all the 
situations and under all the trials of life. They are in sympathy with all that is useful 
and pure and good in the community in which they reside, and the coiiimuuity on its 
side cheerfully responds by extending to them respectful admiration and sincere affec- 
tion. Such a man was William Painter, whose name heads this sketch. As a busi- 
ness man he was in many respects a model. The goal of his ambition was success, but 
he would succeed only on the basis of truth and honor. He scorned deceit and 
duplicity, and would not palliate false representations, either in his own employ or 
among his customers and correspondents. No amount of gain could allure him from 
the undcviating line of rectitude. Justice and equity he regarded as the cornerstones 
of tlie temple of trade, without which it could not stand. 

Mr. Painter traced his descent in both paternal and maternal lines from old 
Pennsylvania Quaker stock. He was sixth in descent from Samuel Painter, who 
came from England about 1699, and settled in Chester County, Pennsylvania. His 
maternal line is that of the Gilpins, who settled in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, 
early in the eighteenth century. The name attained prominence in the past and 
present annals of the Gril])in family, both in Maryland and Pennsylvania. His father 
was Dr. Edward Painter, a noted physician, who married, September 1, 1834, Louisa 
(Gilpin, born December 11, 1814, died May 16, 1896, daughter of Joseph Gil- 
liiu. who was born May 17, 1780, died March 29, 1858. He married, in 1802, Sarah 
Pierce. Joseph Gilpin lived at Sandy Spring, Montgomery County, Maryland. Joseph 
Gilpin's father was Gideon Gilpin, who married, December 1, 1762, Sarah Gregg; he 
was Ixirn December 4, 1738, died August 20, 1825. (A full account of the genealogy of 
the Giljiiu family, together with the coat-of-arms, is to l)e found in skctcli of the late 
Bernard (Til])in, elsewhere in this work.) 

William Painter was liorn at Triadelphia, Montgomery County, Maryland, No- 
\cnilicr 20, 1S;!S, and died at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, July 
15, 1906. His boyhood days were spent on the homestead farm, and it was owing to 
the health and strength he gathered in these early days that Mr. Painter was enabled 
to endure tlie gi'eat mental and physical strain that he was subjected to during his 
later life. Even in his boyhood he evinced a decided genius for inventive and me- 
clianical work. In addition to his inventive ability, he was endowed with a remark- 
abh' talent for business methods, a combination rarely met with, which ena))led him 
to rea]i tlie benefits accruing from his labors. He paid the most extraordinary atten- 
tion to the details of whatever engaged his attention, and this persistence was prob- 
ably the mainspring of the success which attended his etforts. He knew not what it 
was to feel discouraged; any trial which did not bring to perfection the idea with 
which his mind wa^ busied was simply reo-arded by him as a bit of experimental 


]Villiai)i Painter. 

work, which it had been absolutely necessary to perform, in order to attain the de- 
sired result; discouragement was an unknown word to him. An idea of the magni- 
tude of his labors may be gained from the fact that he received almost one hundred 
patents from the United States, in addition to the foreign patents connected with 
these, which were also numerous. He was one of the most prolific and successful 
inventors of the State of Maryland, and was rarely without a number of patents pend- 
ing. His inventions covered a wide range of ideas, and he was nearly always en- 
g'aged with one or more of them, especially since 1861, when he adopted the profes- 
sion of mechanical engineering. The best known of his inventions are the crown cork, 
tlie loop seal, the aluminum system of bottle-stoppering, and the machinery con- 
nected with the manufacture of these articles. He has been called the "pioneer in- 
ventor" of this branch of the bottling industry, and it is true that he commenced his 
investigation in this field of industry in 1882, when he noticed the great need of im- 
jirovements in this direction. The idea of using stoppers designed to be thrown away 
after being used once originated with him. The bottling machines and mechanisms 
he invented for the manufacture of stoppers are ingenious mai-\'els, the automatic 
crown i5ower machine being the most rapid and effective bottle-stoppering machine 
ever introchiced. The systems he established are in use all over the world, factories 
for the manufacture of stoppers and the various bottling machines being in operation 
in Baltimore, Loudon, Hamburg, Paris, Yokohama, Toronto and the City of Mexico. 
As a young man Mr. Painter attended the Friends' School at Fallston, Harford County, 
Maryland, and Alsopp's and the Friends' School at Wilmington, Delaware, after leav- 
ing which he engaged in the hide and leather business in that city. Subsequently, 
he came to Baltimore, where he found employment as foreman in the machine shop 
of Murrill & Keizer, in Holliday street, and while working there perfected the 
greater number of his inventions. Among his other inventions are a variety of 
pumps. One design was used extensively by the government at Santiago in pump- 
ing water out of the sunken and partly submerged vessels. This pump is said to be 
so constructed that long pieces of rope, wire cable, and good-sized boulders can be 
pumi>ed through the valve without apparent interference with the manipulation of 
the machine. Pie served as secretary and general manager of the Bottle Seal Com- 
pany from 1885 until 1892, when, having patented the crown cork, he organized the 
Crown Cork and Seal Company, which absorbed the former corporation, and Mr. 
Painter was the secretary and general manager of the latter corporation from 1892 
until January, 190.3. Mr. Painter was a life member of the Maryland Academy of 
Sciences, and a member of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, tlic ^lerrliants 
and Miners' Association, the Athens'um Club of Baltimore, the Baltimore Country 
Club, the Baltimore Yacht Club and the Green Spring ^^alley Hunt Club. For twelve 
years he ivsidcd at his country home, "The Colonies," during the summer months, 
ueai- Pi k<v-\i lie; in the spring of 1906 he purchased the residence of Colonel John C. 
Legg, at Hiihind Park. In 1895 and 1901 he went abroad with his family; he liad 
made several trips to California, and considered Florida as an ideal spot for rest 
and recreation. He married Harriet M. Deacon, who is noted far and wide for her 
admirable qualities of mind and heart, and the aiiiialiility which made a thoroughly 
ha]ipy and contented home life. She is a descemlaiit nl a well-known Chester County 
family. They have had three children: Helen Cliiuehman, who married Richards 
Carson, son of Cornelius Irving and Katharine (Smitli) Meeker; Ethel (iilpin. who 
married John Mifl9in, son of General John M. Hood; and Orrin Chalfant. 

Mr. Painter took especial pride in the fact that he was a native of Maryland, 
that the company which he had called into life was a home industry, and he was an 
optimist in all that related to the development and brilliant pros]iects of Baltimore. 


WiUla»i Pai)itvr. 

<Ju one occasion lie said: "There is but one Baltimore, and there is no need of say- 
ing to anybody that it is in Maryland." He believed tliat the possibilities for the 
exjaansion of meclianieal industry in Baltimore were witliout a parallel anywhere. 
Socially, Mr. Painter was modest and possessed a most amiable and generous nature. 
His industry and energy, his courage and fidelity to principle, are illustrated in his 
career; and brief and imperfect as this sketch necessarily is, it falls far short of jus- 
tice to him if it fails to excite regret that there are not more citizens lilvc him in virtue 
and ability, and gratitude that there are some so worthy of honor and emulation. 

(■l^<>^v^■ <<>i{k. 


By John T. Hawkins. 

(From the Baltimun' ■lournnJ of Commene. Xoremhrr Li. 1S97.) 

Among the most prominent industrial concerns with which Baltimore is favored, 
iiiere is probably not one of which so little is pnblicly known as that set forth in 
the above caption, and a descrii)tion of the extraordinary growth of this Company 
from small beginnings, as well as some knowledge of the characteristics of its foun- 
der and moving spirit, cannot fail to interest our business men and citizens generally. 
As leading up to a general exposition of the business, p('rliai>s tlie better way will 
be to begin with the man who has been the author and princii»ally the guide aiul 
manager of it all, Mr. William Painter. 

Mr. Painter comes, on both sides, of old Pennsylvania Quaker stock, and is liiin 
self a birthright member of the Society of Friends, lie is a son of the late Dr. Kd- 
ward Painter, and his mother was a Gilpin — a name of considerable prominence, 
both in the past and present, in Maryland and Pennsylvania. His ancestry is 
clearly traceable, on the maternal line, back to the thirteenth century. The orig- 
inal Quaker stock came from England and settled in Delaware County, Pennsyl- 
vania, early in the eighteenth century. The present William Painter was born in 
"Old Montgomery," Maryland, in 1838. 

Like many of our prominent scientific men and inventors, Mr. Painter's early 
days were of the bucolic order, which has served an excellent |iurpose in fitting- 
such men with that robustness of physi(iue which enables tlieni to withstand suc- 
cessfully the great nervous sti'aiii incidental to the inventive faculty, and it has gen- 
erally stood liini in good stead. Tt) those who are personally and professionally 
acquainted with him he appears as an epitome of restless energy and indomitable 
jjerseverance, combined with a remarkaljle genius for everything of a mechanical 
and scientific nature, but unlike many similarly constituted men who fail to apply 
their genius to their worldly advancement, he possesses that somewhat rare combi- 
nation with these of such an excellent talent for busi 
sured to himself an adequate pecuniary reward for hi. - 
tor, perhaps, in Mr. Painter's remarkable success i> his p 
sisteney, his genius being of that order which laigely 
pains. Discouragement over initial failure to realize 
unknown sensation, and it is to a great extent because of this peculiarity that he has 
been sneeessful where so many fail. 

The extent of his labors will be appreciated when it is known that he is already 
the recipient of nearly 100 United States patents, to say nothing of their more nu- 
merous foreign offspring, and he is rarely without some dozen or more pend- 
ing. He is one of the most prolific inventors Maryland has ever produced, and cer- 
tainly one of the most successful. These inventions have covered a very wide field, 
and from 1861, when he adopted for himself the })rofession of mechanical engineer- 
ing, he has been actively engaged on one or more of them. Mr. Painter is a life 
member of the Maryland Academy of Sciences, a member of the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers, the American Institute of Mining Engineers, and the Mer- 
chants and Manufacturers' Association and Atheua'um Club of this cit\'. All in all, 


methods as to h 

a\'e in- 

rs. The most sali 

cut fac- 

peculiar faculty 

of i)er- 

-ists in taking 


■onceptions is to 

him an 

WiUiain Pahiter (vid the Crou-n Cork and Seal Co. 

ill a professional light he is certainly to be regarded as one of the favored few who 
have been blessed with the faculty of adding in no inconsiderable degree to the sum 
of human progress in this proliiic century. 

Socially, he is modest to a fault, possessed of that largeness of heart which is 
not always found in busy men of the world, and is of such peculiarly genial and 
acceptalile make-up as to cause him to be beloved by all who know him. As might 
be predicted of such a man, Mr. Painter's home circle is an ideal one; with a charai- 
ing wife, the companion and helpmate in his early struggles, two equally charming 
daughters and an excellent son, now grown to man and woman's estate; with a 
beautiful summer home just beyond Pikesville and a stately mansion on the corner 
of Calvert and Biddle streets, in this city, for a winter residence, he might rea 
sonably be the envy of most people, were it possible to entertain that phase of human 
emotion towards such a man and such a family. 

Without attempting to specify or enumerate his long list of valuable inven- 
tions in many diverse fields and to come down to the time when the above-mentioned 
industry was in the embryotic state, it will suffice to say that in 1882 he first began 
to explore the field which has yielded such flattering results as will be described 
below. Primarily it consisted in devising better and cheaper means than was then 
known of sealing bottles. The great possibilities of this industry soon became ap- 
parent to him, and he has since devoted his entire time and talents to the develop- 
ment of what now constitutes an entirely novel and complete system, whicli really 
involves the entire bottling industry, and with a success which is measurably exem- 
pliticd in the extensive and thorouglily ei|uippc(l establishment shown in our illus- 
tration, whicli has only recently been completed and occupied. 

To adequately apjireciate the amount of inventive study (probably the most 
exhaustive of all human pursuits) involved in perfecting his two present systems, 
it must l)c bonic in mind that tlie original happy conceptions of the actual methods of 
sealing liottles devised li\- liiiii, while brilliant strokes of geiiiu- in themselves, con- 
stitute but a small fraction of the real inventive and mental effort involved in their 
successful ai>plication and their commercial success. The bringing of them to a 
coiiijiletc system or systems made necessary the invention, design and construction 
of a large \ai-ic1y .if machine^ and appurtenances lioth for tlu' pro.luction of the 
sealing (lc\iics t hciiischcs and their economic application t.> bottles, as well as ma- 
chinery and appliaures for making the bottles themselves. Some of these are mar- 
vels of iiigi'iinilN . and without which his original brilliant conceptions would have 
been commercially valueless, and it is just here that this ]ieculiarly compounded 
man has met with un(|ualified success where a majority of men would have failed. 

]\lr. Painter's aim was to institute a system of bottling which, while being as ab- 
solutely gas-tight as the best grades of the ordinary cork, would be so cheap in coni- 
jiarison with them that when once used they might be thrown away, thus eliminating 
the vital objection, where ]iotable liquids were concerned, of the unwholesomeness 
of sealing ile\i( es which were rejieateilly used, and of which there were then many 
extant as substitutes for corks, to sa\- nothing of the repeated use of corks them- 
selves tor the cheaper grades of beverages. The invention, design and construction 
of machinery and appliances for the production of the sealing articles in vast num- 
bers, mechanical means for their economic application to the bottles and the origi- 
nation and construction of apparatus for use in glass factories where the bottles 
are made, together constitute a task of such magnitude as few can have any con- 
ception of. If we add to this the legal, commercial and business acumen required 
to successfully protect his many inventiors by patents, and organize and arrange the 
ajiplication of capital to their exploitation. Iiotli here and abroad, the magnitude 


I»ii<>T*)(iKAPii (>i- loiAi. ixi.ii'si-: oi- Till'; !si n. madio Mav "JI" 

1900. HV Mlt. ^Vl-UKUT li. IIOEN. OK BaI,TI>H>RI:. AT 

VIRGINI.V HEACH. The S1»0T near the sin IW MKUt IKY. 


The kci,ii>se he<;a.n at aisoi 


Edward A. O.-sssk. a Baltimore astro> 


Members op the Baltimore Astronomical AssotTATic» 
Hopkins Vniversit-v were present ii>on this occasion, and 
^v•ere conducted in a tobacco field. the i'se of >vhich had be 


WilJia)!! Pahifer and flic Croioi Cork and Seal C<>. 

of Mr. Painter's labors and his capacity in all these auxiliary fields will be equally 

Tlie lirst of the two fundamental conceptions which have grown to their present 
magnitude was patented in 1882, and was known as the "Bottle Seal." It consists, 
as finally perfected, in what every user of bottled beverages will recognize as a rub- 
ber disc containing a loop of wire, by means of which it is extracted from the bottle, 
and somewhat resembling an ordinary shank button. It is forcibly compressed into 
an annular recess formed in the bottle mouth, and is lined with an inert fabric to 
prevent contact of the contents of the bottle with the rubber. This device was the 
beginning of what is now known as single-use stoppers, referred to above. 

In 1892 Mr. Painter patented his now well-known "Crown Cork," which has 
already l)ecome as familiar to the users of bottled goods as his original "Seal." 
This conception, when put into practice, became at once as acceptable as it was in- 
genious and novel. It was a radical dej^arture from all previous devices for seal 
ing bottles, in that it depended upon exterior contact only with the head of the 
bottle for resistance to internal pressure. An exhaustive description of the me- 
chanical and scientific principles involved in this device would be too long to insert 
here; suffice it to say that it consists in a cap or crown of tinplate, lined with a thin 
disc of cork, which makes gas ti^lit contact with the top edge of the bottle mouth, 
and is elastically held in place by the toicible compression of a series of peculiarly 
formed corrugations on its outer edge about a suitably-formed rib on the bottle- 
head. Like its predecessor, the "Seal," the "Crown Cork" is for single use only, 
and is far more easily removed from the bottle by a suitable "opener" than is the 
ordinary cork, as in fact is also true of the "Seal." 

The Crown Cork very quickly established for itself a rei)utation among l>oth l)ot- 
tiers and consmners, particularly as applied to the bottling of the higher grades of 
beverages. Although but about four years old, its production has become some- 
thing enormous, and already vies most favorably with the Seal for ]mlilic favor. The 
following figures will give a general idea of the extent of the industry employed 
in the production and application of these two systems: In the month of July last 
the sale of Seals alone was 180,000 gross, and for the vear ending Octohci- ."Jlst, 
1,280,150 gross, or over 184,000,000 Seals. Of Crown Corks there were sold iii .July 
ncaily 100.000 gross, and for the year ending with October, (357,600 gios-, or nearly 
<)4,tH 10. ()()() Crowns. This makes a total product of both systems for the year of 
neaily I'SO, 000,000, or very close to a million pieces for every actual working day 
in the year. 

Perhaps the extent to which this business has grown cannot l)e more forcibly 
shown than by the amount of materials used therein; for example, in the manufac- 
ture of Seals there is consumed weekly from ten to twelve tons of nilihcr and about 
half that weight of steel wire for the loops, and in the production of the ( 'rown Corks 
tlici'i' is consumed in tlie same pci-iod from ten to fifteen tons of tinphitc of the high- 
est (juality. The Crowns are in many instances fancifully decorated with tlie trade- 
marks of the various customers, these designs being printed on the tin litliograi)li- 
ically, and this alone forms no inconsiderable industry. There are already in use 
over 130 of these special designs. There are over 100 glass factories in the United 
States which make Crown and Seal bottles, and the number of bottlers, brewers and 
others who use the Crowns and Seals, one or both, is over .'5,000. The yearly con- 
vention of the National Bottlers' Association meets in Baltimore in October, 18;)S, 
]iriu( ii)ally through the efforts and influence of this concern. 

The Company employs about 200 ])eoiile immediately within its own jiremises, 
and when the nund)ers (-m]iloy('d in the iwoduction of ridilier, cork, tin, wire and 


William Painter and the Croivn Cork and Seal Co. 

various other articles used in their eouuection are considered, it is safe to say that 
this industry finds employment for over 1,000 people. It produces more Crowns 
and Seals combined than the total product of all other makers of sealing devices in 
this country, with the single exception of the ordinary corks. 

Wlicn it is remembered that bottlers who use one or both of these sealing sys- 
tems must have one or more machines for applying them, while some of the more 
<'xt('nsi\(' concerns require rapid automatic machinery; that every one of the 100 bot- 
tlc makers reiiuire special appliances for forming the bottles, and that the whole of 
this machinery and all its apiiurtciianccs are made by this comitany in its own fac- 
tory, in addition to the enormnu- niitiint of Crowns and Seals enumerated above, the 
real extent of this business beconio apparent. 

But the marvel of it all is that, in its entirety, it is the result of the brain work, 
as guided and uplu^ld b\- the indomitable energy and perseverance of the one man 
whose jiortrait herewith appears. No wonder that once he did break down from sheer 
overwork, anil was reluctantly obliged to relincjuish the helm and take a trip to 
Plurope with his family, as an urgent matter of recuperation. Since his return, how- 
ever, he has profited by experience, and has associated with him some men of kin- 
dred thought and purpose, who now largely relieve him of the cares of the more har- 
assing details of the business, and render his jiathway easier and smoother. Among 
these is Mr. .bilin T. Hawkins, Mechanical Engineer, late of Taunton, Mass., a very 
old friend and associate, who is especially employed as aid to Mr. Painter in his ex- 
perimental researches, and acts more generally as Consulting Engineer for the Com- 
pany. Mr. Painter has lately visibly improved in health, and while he always has 
in hand and in progress improvements on his present methods, and is constantly 
reaching out towards a higher standard in everything, he is now enabled to follow 
his favorite pursuit without endangering his health. 

The Company's affairs are conducted in the most harmonious manner, and as an 
instance of the esteem in which Mr. Painter is held by his coadjutors, the board of 
directors, at the installation of the new building, voted in a most flattering address 
to present Mr. Painter with his life-size portrait, to be painted by one of our first 
artists, and to be hung in the Directors' room as a constant reminder of what the 
Company owes to its founder. This business is pre-eminently a home enterprise, and 
its capital stock is almost entirely owned in Baltimore, Mr. Painter being one of the 
largest lioldci-s. 

Air. T. P. Alexander is assistant manager of the Comi)any, and Mr. E. E. Teale, 
superintendent of the works. The board of directors are: Jose])h Friedenwald, 
Alexander H. Schultz, William Painter, Harvey Coale, Chas. H. Koppclman, John 
Black, Jordan Stabler. The officers of the Comiiany are: Joseph Friedenwald, pres- 
ident; Alexander H. Schultz, vice-president; William Painter, secretary and general 
manager; Harvey Coale, assistant secretary; Chas. H. Koppelman, treasurer; John 
Black, assistant treasurer. 

Mr. >Vii,liam 

^VlI.I.IA.M l^A 


ot<)<;k.\imi oi' .-ii.ii' <>i' I'Ai'Kij. t I'ON \viii< ii aim 

NAMK <>|- "TlIK CUOM'N CORK A>I> SKAI, ( "O." A!- 

^^■ulTTl•:^• hy Okuin C. I'ainti:i{ in 1n!»1. 




ORRIN C. I'AINTER. SKl-aK.MBKK •-i9. lSi)T. 





By William A. Lewis, April 10, 1901. 

If you were to meet upon the street a tall gentleman of military bearing, with 
florid complexion and a white moustache; clad in the groomed manner of good taste^ 
a .silk hat and fashionable clothing: with kindly eyes, which have the twinkle in 
them that tells of a nature that has a moment to spare for the relaxation of a good 
story, or the a]i]u-cciation of a ludicrous incident, you'd never set him down for an 
inventor. You'd iicvin- liken him in your mind t(i one who has been an ingenious pro- 
ducer of ideas that have given the world something new and practical. He has the 
ai)i)earance of a business man — and, strange as it may seem to be applied to an 
inventor, he is business man enough to convert his creative mind into substantial 
I)ecuniary profit, and enough of it to become one of Baltimore's well-to-do citizens 
(to put it mildly and modestly). 

There is nothing about Mr. William Painter which is eccentric. No, not even the 
commonly-sui)])osed eccentricity of indigence, for who ever thinks of inventors — with 
but a very few exceptions — as e\er accomplishing aught but opulence for backers 
and obscurity for their exhausted and unappreciated selves! 

But ]\Ir. Painter isn't this sort of an individual. He is a man of the world, a 
hon humme, a club man, posted in all the current literature of the times, a play-goer, 
an admirer of fine horses, fond of all the ])oi)\dar s]ioi-ts of the day; in fact, a man who- 
has learned the difficult lesson of knowing how to live. \ lifetime of arduous toil 
has not dulled his tastes; years of studious ai>|>lication have not made him pessi- 
mistic; a fair share of primary rebuttals and hardshijjs has not made him cynical- 
He has made his genius his servant, and made it an oliedient, good-natured one, too; 
and now in the very early sunset of life — for he is scarcely past sixty years of age — 
he is in the fullest enjoyment of all that life holds which can be commanded by 
al)undant nutans and a I'efined love for temperate indulgences. 

"Whoever knows the Quaker character knows that its chief attribute is persever- 
ance. With this it combines sterling good sense, which were it ever devoid of intelli- 
gence — which it is not — would amount to grim determination. But a Quaker's 
determination is never grim. It is patient and cheery, generous and fraternal. And 
that is the timber of William Painter's cdiaractei'. 

It was on a farm on the outskirts of Baltinioic that Mr. Painter's early days, 
were passed. His father was an old-fashioned Quaker preacher, given to the "thees" 


Genius That Succeeds. 

and ••tlions" of the "coiiiiiuniity." He was, in liis way, not a little of a clever hand 
with inventiveness, but he ronhned his labors in this direction to such economy as 
his gifts might further in his avocation as a farmer. His son William assisted as 
much as a stripling of a lad could, forever pursued with the desire to "make some- 
tliing. " But he was devoid of tools. At last one day the opportunity which will 
suiely come arrived. The asparagus bed was going to seed. His father remarked: 

"My son, if thee and thy sister will thresh that asjiaragns and get the seeds all 
ready to sell, I'll give thee what it amounts to." 

The result of this sjieculative industry was upwai'ds of a dollar; and young 
Painter came into Baltimore and proceeded to the hardware store of James Foy, on 
South Calvert street, where he invested his earnings in a lot of little tools of a car- 
pentering nature. 

The incpi-cssililc iinjiulse to "make something" was the Ijoy's thought by day 
and dream by niglit, and he set about a multitude of trivial helps to the economy of 
the homestead. Then his parents removed to another farm in Harford county, some 
four miles this side of Bel Air, and here he became the constructor of various milling 
ai)))lian('es of markcMl ingeniousness and merit. 

But, you know, every boy has to have his fate day. William Painter's came, and 
it led him to AVilmington, Delaware, into the patent leather factory of Pyle, Wilson 
& Pyle, two members of the firm being uncles of his. For five years the lad devoted 
himself to mastering the manufacture of patent leather, the while inventing a ma- 
chine for softening leather. It was a most valuable and ingenious affair, so much 
so that it caught the fancy of a practical foreman in the shoj), who proceeded to 
absorb it as his own, and from it he derived a goodly remunei-ation, which his fickle 
memory led him to forget to share with the young ai)])rentice, either in reputation or 

^'ery early in his life, and long before his inventive turn had shaped itself into 
an ambition to accpiire any form of material gain, young Painter had the sagacity, 
which rarely accompanies the creative gift, to studiously consider the vital necessity 
that calls inventive faculties into utility. Of course, it is admitted that all inven- 
tion must have practicality underlying it. But there is practical practicality, and 
there is theoretical jiracticality. This may be somewhat abstruse, but if dwelt upon a 
little it will be seen that there is a wide difference between inventing things that have 
simply the visionary element of a jiossible utility and inventing those things which 
the human race must have in order to derive all the benefits and advancements which 
are within grasp. 

And if you will pause right here you will find the keynote to William Painter's 
success — of the same tyjje and order as the genius of Pidison and Tesla, of Fulton and 
Morse. It is bi'iefly this: Something which everybody needs, better and more cheaply 
pni\idcd than ever before. This view of his inborn gifts young Painter fully com- 
prehended h)iig before he wasted any time chasing fantasies. Therein he took a firm 
giip on Fortune; and, as his fertile mind dreamed constructively, his natural business 
<|uaiifications led him to expend no time whatever upon anything which did not 
come under the head of indis])ensable human necessities. More than this. When he 
once began devising something he never let up. It was his business tact that gave 
him his rich trait. All his study, practice, patience and toiling were investments 
made by bis brain, the interest upon which he was willing to wait for, so long as 
waiting meant improvement, perfection, removal of all defects, and the consumma- 
tion of whatever he had set out to prodiice. 

Now, all this may read ethical, but it's not. True, there are very few inventors, 
dead or living, who have been gifted in all these directions as much as Mr. Painter. 


GeniMs 'Hint Suvvceds. 

But when his leather-softening maehine was literally tilched from him, he didn't 
become discouraged; he simply protited by that experience. Nobody should ever get 
the best of him again by putting clothes ou the children of his brain and endowing 
them with his or her name. 

As he advanced in his teens he wasn't idle. Model after model was made of the 
oi^erations of his mechanical mind, until he thought out the blacking-box, which he 
manufactured most successfully during the war, when tin was exceedingly high. 
Many previous inventions had been made by him, and each and every one had yielded 
satisfactory revenue i>urely upon the basis that they supplied a want felt in some 
direction. He made a good living, earned a good deal of money, l)ec;nu(' to a degree 
famous as an inventor; in fact, became known as "Practical Painter," l)ecause he 
never <labb]ed in anything that didn't embody some valuable heljt in human 

Then Mr. Painter, in 18()5, became greatly in demand as an expert and adviser 
relative to undeveloi)ed inventions and models. Qualified by long experience with 
his own ideas, never to desert anything once undertaken, he was called upon by 
inventors and manufacturers all over the United States to sui)]ily what many a 
half-hearted genius lacked, namely, the stability to carry out an idea to fruitful per- 
fection. And there are hundreds of invaluable machines in u.-e today which owe 
their utility wholly to Mr. Painter's perseverance, for he undertook to develop the 
crude idea of some spasmodic inventor, and brought out the one essential point which 
its inventor lacked — that is, the faculty of making the contrivance of some usefulness. 

A complete list of Mr. Painter's own inventions numbers about one hundred 
patents, while, were he credited with all the mechanical devices that he has brought 
to practical utility, that list would be very much increased. 

During all this while Mr. Painter was not a recluse. He had married, established 
his home, participated in everything which becomes good citizenship, earned the 
respect of his fellow-men, won their admiration for his brilliant mind, reared a family, 
ancl with far more than ordinary rapidity risen in the world. 

While Mr. Painter does not disclaim that he has been a burner of the midnight 
oil in the prosecution of his inventions, he has never repressed the good fellowshij) of 
his nature, never isolated himself from society, never become a crank. Fame and the 
emoluments of reward have not turned his head. Many successes never dampened 
his ardor to continue benefiting mankind. 

It was not until he was about fifty years of age that Mr. Painter invented the bot- 
tle stopi)er, which is the master stroke of his eventful and successful life. While he 
is to this day devoted to his laboratory, and passes hours there studying out other 
new devices, his single-use bottle stoppers are enough in themselves to place his name 
among the liencfactors of mankind, for the simple reason that they operate bene- 
ficially upon the hygienic an<l economic condition of the liuman race; and whoever 
helps mankind to be more healthful cannot possibly be of greater value to his age. 

Here, above all his other inventions, has Mr. Painter brought into play the tri- 
umi)hant quality of his practical mind, here has he ))laced the fickle Goddess of For- 
tune under obligations to him, here has he taken rank with the biggest successes of 
all inventive masters; for he devised that which is in univei-sal use, he simi)lified its 
utility, made it indispensable to the health of communities, and brought down the 
cost of its manufacture to an incredible minimum. 

William Painter today, in the comforts of his city home, or amidst the pleasures 
of his country seat, still in the vigor of a manhood unimpaired even by the assiduous 
application given to intricate problems of science, enjoys only what rightfully 
belongs to a successful thinker and a ])ractical inventor. Success is to him only the 


Genius That Succeeds. 

mathematical solution of the problem which possessed him when he was "making 
things" on his father's farm. Even then he didn't chase visionary ideas. And when 
he fixed upon a rational idea he pursued it to completion. In a word, Mr. Painter 
never began any invention tliat he didn't finish, never devised anything that wasn't 
of practical use, and never created any appliance but has been of benefit to his race 
and has reflected pecuniary advantages to himself. 

Now, that is success. And as one reads this account, if there is an ingenious sou 
within calling, or a daughter devoted to pallet or chisel, music or needlework, this is 
the time to ask them to listen to the story of a man who began life by losing no time, 
wasting no energies, fooling away no opportunities, liixini;- uj) notliing once begun, 
leaving nothing until it was absolutely perfected. Such arc the lessons which are 
handed down in preserved biographies; but here is the case (if a man who is daily 
visil)le on our streets, who is active in affairs, who moves in suciety, who is one of us. 
Point the boy and girl to his traits of perseverance, read tiieni tiie story of his life, 
h't tlicm understand that it isn't necessary to die to have (ine's own monument, but 
that it can be Imilt by one's self. 

From the last of Mr. Painter's inventions lie has earned what may be termed a 
. royal bounty. Enough honors and gains are his to satisfy most any man's ambition. 
And in these directions Mr. Painter is not unsatisfied. But the industrious nature is 
there still; the deft fingers are restless; the irreju-essible eiier-y is ever alert, and the 
skilled eye is ever concentrated on something new, whereby to pmniote the wonders of 
science. Here is another lesson for the young; another example tV)r those who say: 
"If I could be sure of so much a year I'd never strike another blow of work as long 
as I live." Success never numbs the energies of great men; never satisfies the indus- 
try of ,i;i-eat natures. At this very moment jirojects of vast magnitude occupy the 
analytical brain of 'S\\\ Painter, and in due time tlicy will be developed into such 
siuipe that there'll be no doubt about them, no failure, no un( crtainty. But he'll keep 
them in his brain until they are in such shape that he can fix their market value to a 
cent. Then they'll be launched, and not till then. 

He who has the faculty of making a pleasure of study and toil, who isn't soured 
by it, who doesn't heed rebuffs, who is never discouraged, who keeps on with the same 
elastic steii and steady eye, age doesn't overtake that man; and it hasn't overtaken 
Jilr. Painter. He is a veritable boy in many respects, takes the keenest interest in 
e\erything that kindles the world at large, enjoys the good things of life, esteems its 
relaxations, and thus seasons his daily engrossments, and so perfumed his laboratory 
with Cheeriness and Good Nature that he and Patience are chums who never have a 
quarrel, while Prosperity is always asking to join the merry gronj) which makes Labor 
ashamed that it can never bring shadows to the brow. 


MR. SSAMI Ki, (J. II. Cook. 
(photoc;kaphi:d by Janvier.) 

Mr. Cook introduced the Crown Cork system in (Jre.vt .vnd 

FOREKiN countries. 
(See The Cromn Cork Company, Lim 

London. ) 


Mr. William Painter invented three rei'v important bottle- stoppers, the tirst of 
which was the "Tiiumph." This consisted of a rubber stopper with a protected fac- 
ing, and a wire device for operating it. This stopper was controlled by the Triumph 
Bottle Stopper Company, which was organized in 1885 by Mr. Samuel G. B. Cook, 
and met with considerable success. Soon after its introduction Mr. Painter invented 
and patented the "Bottle Seal," the first single-use stopper which was ever offered 
to the lidttliiig trade, other than corks. 

As the Bottle Seal could be sold at twenty-five cents per gross, as against $3.50 
])er gross for the Triumph stopper, it was decided to abandon the Triumph stopper, 
and tliose interested in that Company and otiiers who became stockholders under 
tlie agreement with Mr. Conk, nrganized The Bottle Seal Company, which acquired 
all the rights to that stoi)ii('r in the I'nited States and Canada, in September, 1885. 

The Bottle Seal met witii the icndy approval of the bottling trade in the United 
States, and develojied into a large and profitable business, which paid satisfactory 
dividends to its shareholders. 

Mr. William Painter and Mr. Lewis E. Keizer, in 1889, owned the exclusive rights 
to the Bottle Seal in all foreign countries, under which they made a contract with 
Mr. Samuel G. B. Cook for the sale to him of those rights, and under this contract 
Mr. Cook went to London in September, 1889, and shortly afterwards organized and 
formed The Bottle Seal Company, Limited, of England, which acquired the exclu- 
sive rights to the Bottle Seal in all (Mnnitries other than the United States and Canada. 

Mr. Cook was iiiaiuiging dii-ector of this ("oinpany, and at once established a fac- 
tory at Hamburg, (Jernuiny, where the Seal and machinery for its application were 
manufactured, and from that iioint the products were supplied to England, France 
and other countries. 

Mr. Cook also organized the following companies to acquire the rights and man- 
ufacture and sell Painter's patented Bottle Seals: The German Bottle Seal Com- 
pany, Liniitecl, formed in 1891 to control the German patents and the General Bottle 
Seal Comimiiy, Limited to acquire the rights for all other European combines. 

On l'(4)ruar> I'nd, 1892, Mr. Painter patented the Crown Cork, and Mr. Samuel 
G. B. Cook, under his agreement with The Bottle Seal Company and Mr. Painter, 
organized The Crown Cork and Seal Company, which acquired all rights to the 
manufacture of lioth stopi)ers, and this Companv was organized under the laws of 
the Stat.^ of ^la.yl.-nid, on Api'il l>t, IS!);]. 

The husiiiess of this Conii)any has steadily increased until it has reached enor- 
mous proportions, owing to the superior engineering talent and inventive genius of 
Mr. Painter, who thoroughly protected by patents the inventions covering the Crown 
Cork and the n Kiel lines for applying same. 

Under ]\lr. Painter's assignment to The Crown Cork and Seal Company, it 
acquired only tin' rights in the United States and Canada. 

In 1894, under the contract with Mr. Painter for the sole right to introduce the 
Crown Cork system in all countries other than the United States and Canada, Mr. 
Cook organized The Crown Cork Syndicate, Limited, to acquire those rights. Aft- 
erwards he interested a large number of prominent bottlers to use the Crown Cork 
svstem of stoitiiering bottles, among which were the Apollinaris Company and other 
large bottlers of natural waters and beer in Gennany; also prominent bottlers of 
aerated waters in Endand, such as W. A. Ross & Sons, William Cony & Company, 
Cantrall. Cochran & Comjiany, Tjimited, Schweppe & Comiiany, Limited, and many 


The Crown Cork Company, Limited, London. 

others. He orgauized, iu May, 1897, Tlie Crown Cork Company, Limited, to acquire 
the exclusive rights of the Sjiidicate. 

This Company, of which Mr. Cook was the managing director, established its 
first factory in Hamburg, Germany, and later aimthcr tactory in London, a third in 
Paris, and later one in Yokohama, Japan, and aiintlicr in Kio Janeiro, Brazil. All 
of the above factories were managed and conducted b\ the head office of tlie Company 
in London, England, where it also has extensive factories. 

The London Company and its various factories introduced to large bottlers the 
Crown Cork system in over thirty different countries, and wherever used the Crown 
Cork has proved to be the most acceptable and satisfactory system of stoppering 
bottles containing beer, natural and aerated waters and other beverages that has ever 
been in use. 

The difficulty of introducing a new svstem in any business, and particularly one 
so radically new as the stoppering of bottles, and especially against the extensive 
and formidable opposition of two extensively used systems of patent stopjjers, and 
also the conservative views in England and other countries favoring the ordinary 
cork system for stoppering, rendered the work far more onerous than would have 
been occasioned in introducing a system in this country. 

Mr. Cook remained as managing director and chairman of the Company until 
about 1908, wiien he returned to Baltimore, where he has since resided. 

In the introduction of the Crown Cork system in Euroi)e it was necessary for 
Mr. Cook to make about sixty voyages across the Atlantic ( )ccan. 

In about 1908 The Crown Cork and Seal Company of Baltimore acquired an in- 
terest as stockholders in The Crown Cork Company, Limited, (if London, since which 
time the Baltimore Company has been managing the foreign business. 

At the time of the formation of The Crown Cork Comimiiy. Limited, by Mr. Cook, 
in London, in 1894, his friend. Colduel Herbert H. Roberts, who was a director and 
chairman of The Crown Cork Sxndicate, Limited, comiMised the following verses for 
Mr. Painter and Mr. Cook as an appreciation of the Crown Cork system and those 
operating it: 

XEW YEAR'S EVE, 1894. 

The silent year will soon pass to its grave. 

And with it its pleasures and woes; 
May it never rise up t' accuse us. 

Evoked from its death-like repose. 

May it peacefully glide to its rest. 

To swell the long roll of the past: 
And may every succeeding New Year 

Find us more prepared for our last. 

May it hold many blessings in store 

For one who deserves them so much. 
And may health to enjoy tliem be yours, 

And all turn to gold that you touch. 

Let us hope in the year Xinety-five 


Ev'ry country, city 
Will abolish both wire and cork. 
And use the American ''Crown.' 



Great Development of the Business of Manufacturing Seals and Stoppers for Bottles. 

(From l/ir JUilllmorc Sun. Dcriuhfr Jl, 1.SU6.) 

The larne new buil(liii,i;s liciiin' erected l)y the Crowu Cork and Seal Company on 
Guilford avenue, Girard avenue and Latrobe street are rapidly nearing comple- 
tion, and when put into service, in connection with the present factory on Guil- 
ford avenue, will comprise one of the largest manufacturing plants in the South and 
by far the largest i)lant for the manufacture of patent bottle-stoppers in the world. 

These new buildings, made necessary by the rapidly growing business of the 
company, were begun last April, and will cost not less than $75,000. The principal 
one, 90 by 80 feet, is six stories high. Adjoining it, fronting on Guilford avenue, is 
a building 100 by 45 feet, two stories in height, and in the rear of this a power- 
house 80 by 35 feet and one story high. The structures are of sand brick, with 
brownstone trimmings, and will be in use by January 1. When these have been com- 
pleted work will begin on a fourth building, wliich will resemble the present cor- 
ner structure. 

The comjDany is at present housed in a l)uilding facing 110 feet on Guilford ave- 
nue, with a depth of 90 feet, which was built last year. This and the two large 
buililings in the rear connected with it were occupied in September, 1897, and have 
already in-oven too small. 

The necessity for such an exceptionally rapid development of plant illustrates the 
rapid growth of a business which is reaching out into all parts of the world and 
yet has made so little noise about itself that very many Baltimoreans are unac- 
(|uainted with its history. The hundreds of thousands of dollars expended here in 
l)uildin,sis and machinery, as well as in the employment of workmen, is the result 
of the i)o])ularity attained by two apparently simple little devices invented by 
]\Ir. William Painter, secretary and general manager of the company. Many 
persons have noticed the little metal caps now so often seen crowning bottles of 
effervescent drinks and the round, flat rubber stopper with a wire loop in it, found 
sealing other bottles, without knowing that they are manufactured in Baltimore; that 
a fortune has been expended in perfectinu- them, and that another fortune has been 
reaped from their sale by the enter}nising owners. Yet all the immense buildings 
spoken of are necessary for their productioon and the manufacture of various l)ottling 
and other machinery to which they naturally gave rise. 

Mr. Painter, who combines the rare talent of business aliility with the senius of 
the inventor, patented his first successful system of bottling' in September, 1885. 
This was the use of the rubber seal. A company was formed for the manufacture 
of the seal under the name of the Bottle Seal Company, and began business in a 
modest way on North Holliday street. Later the growth of the business demanded 
larger quarters, which were found in a small factory adjoining the Brush Electric 
Light Company's plant, on East Monument street. In two years it was necessary 
to enlarge this place. In the meantime the crown cork, adapted for single use, like 


A BaUhnore Enterprise. 

tlie .-eal, had liccn patmtcd 1(\- .Mr. J'aiiitci-. The Botth' St-al Coinpauy also acquired 
the riglit to this patent, which was dated February 2, is;)2, and a stoclv company 
was incorporated April 1, lS!»i', under the name of the Crown Cork and Seal Com- 
pany. Business continued to e\(iand until the handsome large building on Guilford 
avenue, which has been tlie company's home since September 1, 1897, was erected. 

The crown cork is composed of a metal cap, having a corrugated flange, in which 
is a disc of cork with six'cially prepared paper for holding it to the metal and to 
prevent the (onteiits of the bottle from coming in contact with tlie metal. This 
cork is put on and locked on the bottle by an ingenious machine devised by Mr. 
Painter. There are seven kinds of crown and seal machines for filling and stopper- 
ing bottles, all of them marvels of perfection in mechanism. The largest is an 
automatic crown power machine, which has a ca]tacity of ]ilacing crown corks on 
100 bottles a minute, and is known as tiie most rapid and perfect machine in 
the history of bottling. Tliese luacliines are all nuuh- a1 the company's works, 
wliere over JOD persons are employed in various avocations. Special tools for secur- 
iu.i^- uuiforiii forniatioii of bottle heads are useil liy over 100 large glass factories in 
the United States. 

The use of the crown system has grown rapidly abroad, and the Crown Cork 
Company, Limited, of London, which has purchased all the foreign patents, has ex- 
tended its business to all parts of Europe, to South Africa, South America, Asia and 
Australia. Neither this nor the Baltimore company attempts to bottle goods; they 
simply supply the bottling machinery and the crowns and seals. 

Mr. William Painter, from whose brain was evolved the complicated machinery 
for the business, comes on l)oth sides of old Pennsylvania Friends stock, although 
he was l)orn in MontgonuM-y county, Maryland, in 1838. His early life was spent in the 
country, where lie developed that patience and persistence of purpose that brought 
later success. In ISSi] he began to devote his attention to the line of work which 
has hail su( li flattering results. He is a prolific inventor and is already the holder 
of neailx 100 United States and many foreign patents. Just now he is engaged upon 
an iutere-ting line of work in tlu' way of experiments with gramilated cork, held to- 
gether by gluten of wheat, lie has secured a compound that can be produced 
at trifling cost and is expected to prove valuable for many of the uses to which rub- 
ber, cork and leather are frequently put. 

Two of the most enthusiastic supporters of Mr. Painter's i)lans are Joseph 
Friedenwald. president of the I'ouiiiany, and Harvey Coale, assistant secretary, 
Mr. Friedenwald 's ))usiness ability and sagacity has been an important factor in 
briiigiim- about succ'ess. :\Ir. Coale, who was born in ISoS, is a re])resentative of 
the ,'iitciprising tvpe of Baltimoreans and has been assistant secivtary and a director 
in the compan\- since it was incor])orated. 

The Inisiness is precniiueutly a home enterprise, and its capital stock, $1,000,000, 
is owned almost eutirel>- in Baltimore. The directors are Joseph Friedenwald, 
Alexander II. Schultz, \ViHiam Painter, Harvey Coale, Charles H. Koppelman, 
John Black and Jordan Staltler. The officers are: Joseph Friedenwald, president; 
A. H. Schultz, vice-]. resident; William Painter, secretary and general manager; 
Harvey Coale, as-distant secretary; Charles H. Koppelman, treasurer; John Black, 
assistant treasurer. T. R. Alexander is assistant manager and E. E. Teale, super- 
intendent of the works. Jolm T. Hawkins, mechanical engineer, assists Mr. Painter 
in his experimental woik. 


By Joseph J. O'Brien, Editor of Invention. 

(Ocfohrr. 191S.) 

"The sum of human happiness is 
made up of little things affecting the 
life of individuals." — Senator Robert 
S. Taylor. 

Few imentions have Ix-cii so coiniiletely siu-cessfnl as the nictallic l)()ttle closure 
invented by William Painter, of Baltitnoiv, Md. 

Previous to tlie time of Painter's invasion of the bottle closure field it was the 
custom to seal the necks of bottles by means of corks and othei- plu.iis inserted in 
the bore of the bottle neck, by lever-closed sealing devices, and a limited use was 
found for cup-shaped caps which were fitted on the bottle neck. 

Beverages, and especially those charge(l witli carl)onii- acid gas, or made from 
malt, were bottled and the bottles sealed with the leverclosed ping. With tlie 
spread of knowledge <'oncerniiig sanitation and the wonderful increase in the trade 
of bottled goods, a demand developed for a bottle closure which wotild not cause an 
accumnlation of dirt aronml the l)ottle month, and which would not interfere with the 
cleansing of the bottle after being nsed, nor with its i-echarging. 

The bottle closnivs which had been in ns<> weiv all oi>en to various objections. 
The wire holding parts or the wire levers would be injured or would rust at the 
mouth of the bottle, and dirt would accumulate under the ])arts. Moreover, the seal- 
ing was not always p(>i-fect, a i-esult which was in part due to the lack of uniformity 
in the construction or the smoothness of the mouth of the bottle. 

William Paintei- had observed these facts; he had closely studied every phase of 
the bottle-cdosing jiroblem, specializing with bottles for merchandising ])eers, malted 
goods, soda waters and like ])reiiarations. After consideral)le expeiimenting he re- 
alized that a new plan of closing must be adopted to satisfy the demands of the 
trade and the wants of the public. 

So he set to work to devise a new bottle closure. He observed that the bottle 
closure needed must be of simple constiiiction; it must positively seal the mouth of 
the bottle neck, without injury to the glass, and in such manner that the bottle mouth 
could be easily opened to discharge the contents thereof. The closure must be sim- 
]ile and be adapted for rapid machine manipulation and be as inexi)ensive as possible. 

It seems that the very simplicity demanded of the new bottle closni-e was not 
defined by the inventors who had invented bottle sto)i]>ers or closures before Painter. 
PracticaUy all of these devices were built on the very old |)iinciple of inserting some- 
thing in the bottle neck. Painter departed from this principle and placed a sealing 
disk on the mouth of the bottle neck, and while the disk was held closely against the 
bottle neck he crimped a metal holding cap around the walls of the bottle neck so as 
to hold the sealing disk compressed. 

The first bottle-closing devices ])roduced compi-ised a metal caj) with two holes 
and a cork sealing disk consideralily thicker than the ones now commonly employed. 


^■1 liciuarkaJdr Paiod Success— The Sforij of a CurLiin/ Inrciitin;,. 

After considerable experimenting Painter discovered that tlie metal cai) could be 
made simpler by omitting the holes and the disk could be thinned, lowering the 
cost of the closure and improving its sealing action or efficiency. In the first in- 
vented devices the holes ]ir()vided a small bar of metal by which the cap could be 
removed witli tlic iKiint of n hand tool placed under the bai-. This reciuired the use of 
a cork disk thick eiiougl] to prevent leakage through llie holes in the metal cap. 

Intent on the desire to still simplify the l)ottle cloMire, Painter discovered that 
the cap could be easily removed from the bottle neck by forcing an opener tool 
against the crimped flange of the metal cap, and that the holes in the top portion 
of the cap were unnecessary. He continued his experiments, and found that a very 
thin cork disk could be used in place of the thick cork disk used in the first produc- 
tions. He found that by dishing the cork disk, or forming it concavo-convexo, he 
could shrink the disk, so that the usual cork flaws would be closed, and a perfect seal 
formed with a wafer-thick disk, which was held in its compressed condition against 
the mouth of the liottle neck by means of a metal cap which had an imperforate cen- 
tral ]M)rtion and its flange crimped on a shoulder formed on the bottle neck. 

In November, 1889, William Painter filed his first application in the Patent Office, 
and shortly afterwards filed additional applications covering the improvements. On 
February 2, 1892, a patent was issued to him, with four claims, which covers the con- 
struction of the metallic bottle seal now in universal use, and which is known the 
world ovci' as the Crown Cork. This name is descriptive and fitting. The metal 
ca)! cid\vii> llie bottle neck to hold the sealing disk compressed against the bottle 
month: its ciimijed flange presents an appearance resembling that of a crown; and 
the iuxcntion crowned one of the most troublesome inventive iiroblems with a suc- 
cess which is simply dazzling. 

In time The Crown Cork and Seal Conii)any of Baltimore, Md., was formed, and 
this coni]iany undertook to introduce the Painter bottle closure to the trade gen- 
(•iali,\ . Tiic success of the new invention was simply wonderful. The trade was fas- 
cinated with the invention, the public received it with approval. It not only satisfied 
tile wants of the bottling trade, but actuall.y stimulated the growth of this trade. The 
invention was adopted by every class of bottlers; the Crown Cork was seen in every 
l»art ot the country. 

'I'he company grew wealthy, and its success tem])ted rivals to invade the field it 
had developed. It developed new machines for handling the Crown upon the most eco- 
nomical ba-is. It met the infringements which it had to deal with and maintained 
the pioneer character of the invention. The trade in the Crown Cork was expanded 
until it ran into the millions, and the controllers of The Crown Cork and Seal Com- 
liany reapetl a large harvest. 

The success whicli crowned the invention of Painter was won by consistent busi- 
ness effort, and it re(piired, first, a real trade demand; second, a simple and cheap in- 
vention to supply that demand; third, adequate ])atent protection to legally define 
the ownership of the invention; fourth, a determined, energetic and well-organized 
promotion of the invention; fifth, ever-watchful and continued inventive work to sup- 
ply the demands of the trade dexcloped from the invention, calling for efficient ma- 
chines for clienpl> making the cork disks and metal caps and for safely and efficiently 
apjilying the disks and caps to l)ottles charged with liquids imder pressure. 

With the success of the simpler form of the invention tlie earlier forms were not 
exiiloited, though the demands of the trade were met with an improved article. If the 
jn-oposed compulsory license law was in force it would have l)een possible to compel 
a liicnse to mannfactnie the first devices, or to compel, imder threat of such license, 
the manufacture of the inferior article, to the consequent annoyance of the trade. 



By John Mifflin Hood, Jr., 
President of The Crown Cork and Seal Co. 

(April £7, 191J,.) 

An aeconnt of the life of William Painter without some description of the 
wonderful growth of The Crown Cork and Seal Company would be incomplete. 

The Crown Cork and Seal Company was founded in 1892 by Mr. Painter, and has, 
through the patented "Crown Cork," revolutionized the bottle-stoppering business 
of the world and has caused a radical readjustment of the cork-wood market of the 
Mediteri-anean countries by its economical consumption of cork. 

The bottler has been enabled to cut his stoppering expenses in half, and has 
further been supplied with novel and automatic machines for filling and crowning his 
beverages. These machines were either invented by Mr. Painter or founded upon 
ininciplcs established by him. 

In order to sui^ply the world-wide commodity of Crown Corks, two immense man- 
ufacturing plants have been erected in Baltimore and are being continually expanded, 
the Company just having announced the fact that, owing to constantly increasing 
business, it has outgrown its present machine shop and will erect a quarter-of-a- 
million-doUar new building along the most modern accepted lines of factory-building 

In order to facilitate prompt distribution of its goods throughout this country, 
branch stores or depots have been established in all of the prominent cities, there 
being now no less than seventeen such depots. 

In order to conduct its business in the Dominion of Canada, the Comiiany has 
an n]i-to-date manufacturing plant in Toronto, witli distributing depots at Montreal 
and Winnipeg. Similarly, a manufacturim;' plant has been erected in Mexico City to 
su])|)ly that Republic. 

The foreign business is handled directly through The Crown Cork Company, Lim- 
ited, of I^ondon, controlled by The Crown Cork and Seal Company by its corporate 
stockholdings, together with tlmsc of the Painter family. The Crown Cork Com- 
pany, Limited, of London, sujiplies tlir rest of the world through its London, Paris, 
Hamburg, Yokohama and Rio .laiiciro factories. This concern also is constantly in- 
creasing its business, and is establishing new factories and depots in foreign coun- 
tries to more advantageously meet the general demand for this system of stoppering. 

The furnishing of all these factories with cork disks is, indeed, a work which ex- 
acts the best business ability of the management of the Corchera International, of 
Palamos, Spain, which is also controlled bv The Crown Cork and Seal Company. 

The Corchera International, in order to suj^ply these requirements for cork disks, 
employs at times no less than foiir thousand, five hundred hands, which is virtually 
the entire working population of the little S]ianish town above mentioned. 


The Crown Curk and Seal Coiupa)iii. 

Palamos is situated in Northern Spain, at the foot-hills of the Pyrenees Moun- 
tains, and directly on the Mediterranean Sea, with si)len(li(i shipping- facilities to all 
points on the Mediterranean, and, as is well known, it is only in the countries adjacent 
to the Mediterranean Sea that cork-wood is successfull\- i^rown in commercial quanti- 

The C'(n-chera International has branches at Seville and l/islion, besides other 
important collecting' dei)ots in Spain, Portu.H'al and Aluci-ia. for the receipt of cork- 
wood from the various forests for reassortinii', in order to ^liij) oidy suitable wood for 
disk manufacture to Palamos. 

From the foregoing brief recital one may gain an idea of the magnitude of the 
business established by Mr. Painter, and of its ecpially remarkable growth under liis 
sui>ervision, and also of the nuumer in which he has tompletely changed for the bet- 
ter the b(Utling industry throughout the world. 

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Baltimore, U. S. A. 

The following Preamble and Resolution was unanimously adopted at a meeting 
of the Board of Directors of The Crown Cork and Seal Company held on the 7th (la\- 
of September, 1897: 

"PREAMBLE: It is the sense of this Board of Directors that this the occa- 
sion of its first meeting in the new home of The Crown Cork and Seal Co., should not 
be permitted to pass without recording its appreciation of the most potent factor of 
all the causes that have united to bring about the gratifying results achieved l>y 
this Company. We have in the Directory of The Crown Cork and Seal Co. a mem- 
ber who, by his phenomenal resources, tenacity of purpose, boundless zeal and un- 
tiring energy, has guarded the interests ot this Company and contributed to its suc- 
cess, so that todav standing pre-eminently the pivotal figure of its progressive 
career, and whose name is WILLIAM PAINTER. 

"What could be a more fitting evidence of our appreciation, what more pleasing 
testimonial of all we admire in William Painter, than to have his life-size portrait 
adorn the wall of this Directors' Room. With this object in view: 

"RESOLVED: That a committee of three be appointed to confer with William 
Painter on this subject." 

The President here appointed Jordan Stabler, Charles H. Koppelman and Har- 
vey Coale a committee of three to confer with William Painter regarding having 
his life-size portrait painted. 

(Signed) Habvey Coale, 

Ass't Sec'y. 

Office of 
Mrs. W))>. Painter, Baltimore, U. S. A., 

PikesriUe, Md.— July 11th, 1899. 

My dear Mrs. Painter: 

I have the pleasure and lionor of communicating to you a resolution that was 
pre:-ented and unanimously carricil at tlic meeting of oui- Board of Directors held 
this <hiy. at wiiii'h lu.M-tiiig liie entire i'.onrd was pi-eseiil : 

"Resolved: That the I'-oard of Direetoi's (.f The Crown Cork and Seal Co. of 
Baltimore ('it>' talces great pleasure in presenting, with its ('(mipliments, to Mrs. 
AVm. Painter the Oil Portrait of Mr. Wni. Painter which was painted by Mr. Cor- 
ner by the directions of this Board." 

As the Board wishes to have a copy made of said Portrait before the same is 
deliver('<l to you, it will necessarily be some little while before the absolute delivery 
will l)e made. l)nt tlie object of this letter is to inform you of the kindly feeling it 
has for both Mr. Win. Painter and yourself, and so notifies you in advance of turn- 
ing tlie Poi-frait over to you. 

I have the honor to remain, 

Very sincerely yours. 
To Mrs. Wm. Painter, (Signed) Harvey Coale, 

Pikesville, Md. Ass't Sec'y. 


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150RN NOV. aO, 1H3H 

DIED .Tii.Y in. liHU; 


IS NOT TO niE." 

(Eijo.M "Hallowed CJkoi'nd." nv Tiiomak < .vmi'iikll.) 

By Orrin Chalf ant Painter. 

'I'lic hmcssoiiu' latter days are here, 

1 walk 'mid fallen leaves; 
They drift around me tar and near, 

My heart in silence .grieves. 

I felt the comiii,!; ..f these days 
And knew thou eouldst not stay; 

I realized that from my gaze 
Thy form must pass away. 

In youtli thy ever lovin.i;' care 

Protected me from harm; 
At every time and everywhere 

I felt thy guarding- arm. 

AVhat a debt to thee I owe, 

And one I cannot pay! 
My gratitude I cannot sliow 

By aught I do or say. 

For thee life's joy was on the wane, 
Its zenith had been passed. 

And for thy labor came but pain 
And clouds to overcast. 

We liathe<l thv jioor distracted brow 
And watched thv tl<'etingl)reath; 

Thy ^u^lering woidd not allow 
One comforter but Death. 

We knew the time was drawing near 
When thou shouldst put to sea, 

And took thy hand ere thou didst hear 
That one clear call for tliee. 

But though i»ercepti(m has lieen lost 

By us who yet remain. 
We know tlie bar is safely crossed 

Beyond this sad domain. 

The lonesome days have come at last, 
The dreaded days are here. 

But when the lonely days are past. 
We'll meet thee. Father, dear. 

Mk. .I»>hn Mifflin Hood. Jr. 
(PRESini;>T OF THE Crown Cork and seal Co.mpanv. ) 


(Granoson of 'William Paixter.) 
(photoghaphed by .1. e. bennett.) 


(GRANHDArt;HTKit OF William Paintkr. 







He Represented Mrs. Wm. Painter, Who Erected The Building As A Memorial To Her 

Husband — Fine Tribute By Dr. Wm. H. Welch— Relatives And Physicians Who 

Were Present At The Ceremonies — Inspection Follows. 

(Baltimore American, May 12, 1912.) 

The William Painter Memorial Children's Hospital School was dedicated j'es- 
terday afternoon. 

The ceremony was short, but impressive. Governor Goldsborough had i?rom- 
ised to be present, but sent his regrets shortly before the ceremony. Robert p]. Lee, 
Mayor Preston's secretary, represented the Mayor, who was also prevented at the 
last minute from being present. Ari"angements had been made by which those at- 
tending tlie ceremony were met at the electric cars and conveyed to the hospital in 
busses. Following the ceremony the hospital was thrown open for inspection. 
There are now 25 crippled children in the hospital as patients. Dr. W. S. Thayer, 
of the Johns Hopkins University, presided and introduced the speakers. 

Dr. O. Edward Janney represented Mrs. William Painter, who built the hos- 
pital as a memorial to her husband. Dr. Janney paid a tribute to the charity that 
Mrs. Painter had inaugurated. He said, in part: 

"Whatever monument may be erected to the memory of a nolJe personality, 
surely none can be moi'e appropriate or more worthy than a memorial which in some 
way confers a benefit upon humanity. Few conditions in life are so helpless and 
forlorn as that of a crippled child, who ordinarily can look forward to an existence 
full of mental and physical anguish, and made bitter by the necessity for depend- 
ence upon others. It was, therefore, natural for the donor of this building to de- 
cide upon this particular form of cliarity as an expression of her appreciation of the 
noble and admirable character of her husband." 

Dr. William H. Welch, of the Johns Hopkins University, made a brief ad- 
dress, in which he illustrated the great good that would come fi-om the Children's 
Hospital School, which, he said, combined not only the features of a hospital, but 
a mental training school as well. The keys of the new building were turned over 
to Dr. W. S. Baer, the surgeon in charge, by Arthur George Brown. 

With Mrs. William Painter at the dedication of the hospital were the following 
meml)ers of her family: Mr. and Mrs. John M. Hood, Jr., and their two children; 
Orrin C. Painter, a son of Mrs. Painter; Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Van Trump, of Wilming- 
ton, Del.; Mr. and Mrs. E. Chalfant and Miss Chalfant, of New York, and Miss 
Louise Ryan, of Pliiladelphia. Among some of the prominent physicians present 
were Drs. Walter Piatt, Thomas Shearer, Staige Davis, John Hemmeter, Sydney 
Cone, John Ruhrah, Rupert Norton, John McF. Bergland, Louis Hamburger, F. D. 
Sanger, J. A. Ames, John T. King and Henry F. Hurd. 

John M. Hood, Jr., and Dr. W. S. Baer were in charge of the dedication cere- 

The guests were received by Mrs. William Painter, Mrs. John M. Hood, Jr.. 
Mrs. John Bergland, Mrs. Shirley Carter, Mrs. C. C. Buckman and ]\Irs. Thomas 


MRS. lA)riSA CiiLPiN Painter. 
(Mother of William Painter. 


(From Descendants of Saiiiiiel Painter. ItiU'.i-l'.Ki.l. bii Orrin Chalfant Painte 

Dr. Edward Painter, the second son of William Painter and Phoebe Chnrcliman 
Painter, was born at Concord\ ille, Delaware county, Pa., November 29tli, 1812. 

He received his education at Westtown Boarding- School, after completing which, 
he engaged in the manufacture of cotton at Glenby, on the banks of the Brandy- 
wine, in Delaware. 

He maii-ii-il. September 1st, 1834, Louisa Gilpin, daughter of Joseph and Sarah 
Peirce Gilpin. She was born at Ridley Creek, Delaware, December 11th, 1814, and 
received her education in Wilmington, her parents in the meantime moving to Mary- 
land. In 1829 she joined them there. She went by the stage and steamboat of that 
day, and one of her companions in this journey was Edward Painter, then a boy of six- 
teen, who at once formed a friendship for the modest, beautiful girl, which later on 
ripened into mutual love, resulting in their marriage, as stated. (See Louisa Gilpin 
Painter.) Their first home was at Glenby, whence they removed, in 1836, to Tria- 
delphia, Montgomery County, Md., upon a farm of 400 acres, purchased by Dr. 
Painter's father and presented to him upon his reaching his majority, and here, witli 
William Welsh, of Philadelphia, as a partner, he carried on the business of cotton 
sinuning. He also kept a store and operated a blacksmith sho)) and a saw-mill, in 
addition to running the farm. 

His next move was in 1840, to Herring Run, on the Philadelphia road, near Balti- 
more, where he bought a farm and engaged in daiiy and truck farming. He remained 
there until 1849, when he bought a farm of one hundred and nine acres, near Fallston, 
Harford County, Md. This he sold, and bought, near the same place, in 1859, another 
farm of fifty acres, and a store, at Fallston, where he was postmaster. 

From there he went to Baltimore, where he devoted much of his time to the wel- 
fare of the poor around him. Having good judgment in sickness, and with talents as 
a nurse, he was frequently to be found in the dwellings and cabins of the poor, aiding 
by his skill and ministering to their wants. He has been known to stay all night with 
a sick child, afraid to trust to the ignorance of the attendants in a place from which 
his fastidious taste would have revolted if it had not been overjiowered by his 
benevolent feelings. Being so actively engaged in this kind of service, he felt the 
want of more medical knowledge, and, believing that his medical practice among the 
poor might be made more useful, he conceived it right, though late in life, to study 
medicine. Haviii- urmluated in his chosen profession, he was soon after called into 
an entirely diftViviit lid.l of work. Without any thought of change, he was solicited, 
during the first administration of Grant, in 1869, to become Agent of the Omaha 
Indian Reservation, Nebraska, under the care of Friends. After due consideration, 
he accepted the otTer, not without, as he afterwards said, some difficulty in under- 


Dr. Edinirtl Paluter. 

standing why, as he had felt it a duty to study medicine, he shouhl al.-o feel it ri^lit 
to accept the offer that took him away from his work. But it all t)ecanie plain to 
him when among the Indians, for he found them suffering from disease in multiplied 
forms, a need of the knowledge of the laws of health causing consumption largely to 
jirevail. His medical attendance upon them added greatly to his cares. He was an 
indefatigable worker, and the welfare of his "children," as he called them, was near 
his heart. While upon the Reservation his peace principles were subjected to severe 
tests, but in the end he was triumphant. 

His three years' term of activity at the Omaha Agency expired in IS?:!, when he 
returned to Baltimore, much enfeebled in health by reason of the strain under which 
he had labored. He continued, however, a worker in the Society of Friends until, 
after a second attack of paralysis, he died there, September 29th, 1875. 

The family lot of Dr. Edward Painter is at Friends' Burial (Iround, on the Har- 
ford Road, Baltimore. 

Dr. El)>VAltn 1»A.INTKU. 

( Father of William Paintku. ) 


By M. G. M. 

(Fruiii the Friends' InfelUgencer. Dec. 11. 1S75.) 

Tn a recent number of the "Intelligencer" there appeared a notice of the death 
of Dr. Edward Painter, but it has been desired that something more should be added, 
in eonunemoration of a character that was not of a common order. The object of 
memorials of our departed friends is, in part, to satisfy the longing affection that 
desires to liave their memory cherished; but the higher feeling is that others may be 
encouraged by the example of the good, wlio, having had their infirmities and strug- 
gles, have in the end found the peace which passeth all understanding. Extrava- 
gant encomiums often lessen the force of the example of even a beautiful life, and 
call forth the expression, "The character is overdrawn, it was not so perfect." It 
is surely more encouraging to the seekers after holiness to know the steps by which 
the victory was won and the peace obtained that enabled the purified spirit to depart 
with "joy and not with grief." With this view, it way be appropriate to speak of 
the chequered feelings that marked the life of uur dear friend. He frequently 
recurred to his experience about the time of his ( ,n ly married life, when, full of 
ardor, energy, and with acknowledged business ability, with good opportunities and 
apparently fair prospects of success, he entered upon liis worldly concerns determined 
to be rich. His whole mind was in his work, he was sure of attaining the end he 
wished. But his Master knew what was best for liim; liis liest laid schemes failed; 
but his integrity even then was striking, and in strong contrast with the way in 
wliii-h reverses are often met in these times. 

But tlie aspiring spirit was not subdued; again and again he struggled foi- 
worldly riches, and, having a strong nature and will, the conflict was long continued. 
But yielding at last to tlie checks of the Spirit, which said, "Thus far shnlt thou 
go, and no f;irtlier." he consecrated the last thirty years of his life to his .Master. 
When the surrender was made, and when, with a tranquil mind, he pursued his 
worldly avocations, he was amply blessed in "basket and in store." To a singu- 
larly child-like, transparent character was added a highly nervous organization, a 
combination which caused him sonietinies to be misunderstood; but those who knew 
him well, recognized his purity and siugle-niindeilness. The strong points of his 
character being sanctified, his usefulness was greatly enlarged, and he devoted much 
of his time, while in business, to the welfare of the poor around him. Having good 
judgment in sickness, and with talents as a nurse, he was frequently found in the 
dwellings and cabins of the poor, aiding by his skill, and ministering to the wants of 
the sick. He has been known to stay all night with a sick child, afraid to trust the 
ignorance of the attendants, in a place from which his fastidious taste would have 
revolted if it had not been overpowered by his benevolent feelings. After he had 
left this field of usefulness, blessings were often invoked upon him by those who 
gratefully remembered him. Being so actively engaged in this kind of service, he 
felt the want of more medical knowledge, and, believing that his medical practice 
among the poor might be made more useful, be conceived it right, though late in life, 
to study medicine. Having completed his studies, he was soon after called into an 


Memoir of Dr. Ediiard Painter. 

entirely different tield to work. Without any thought of change, he was solicited to 
liecome an Agent on the Omaha Indian Eeservation, under the care of Friends. 
After due consideration, he accepted the offer, not without, as he afterwards said, 
some difficulty in understanding why, as he had felt it a dtitii to study medicine, he 
should also feel it right to accept the otTer that took him away from his work. But 
it all became plain to him, when among the Indians; he found them suffering from 
disease in multiplied forms, malarious diseases eairying oft' many and a want of the 
knowledge of the laws of health causing consumption to prevail largely. His med- 
ical attendance upon them added greatly to his cares. He was an indefatigable 
worker, and the welfare of his "children," as he called them, was near his heart. 
He accomplished much while on the Reservation and is deserving of a large share 
of the praise lately accorded by Commissioner Smith, that Friends had done a 
great deal for the poor Indians. While on the Reservation his peace principles were 
subjected to a severe test, but he came out triumi)hant. His tribe, subject to incur- 
sions from neighboring Indians, had had their ponies frequently stolen, and were at 
last driven to desperation, and were determined to attempt to recover them by 
warlike means. Edward Painter sympathized with them, and told them he believed 
he could recover them, if they would obey his orders. They had seen that he had 
been willing to sacrifice health, strength and almost life for them, they had faith in 
him, and submitted to his guidance. Relying on his faith in the protecting arm of 
his Heavenly Father, they went forth with him to ask for the restoration of the 
ponies. Soon they saw the Sioux advancing with menacing attitude, but they calmly 
awaited them. The chief came forward with warlike deiiKinstr.itions, and, after 
drawing nearer and nearer, pirouetting around them, oliserving (no doubt, with sur- 
prise) that the Omahas were unarmed, he quietly turned, leaving the field to the 
peaceful victors. Shall we say that these Omahas were unarmed? No; their leader 
was clothed in panoply and shield, stronger flmn was ever invented by man — the 
love of God in the heart, which sjncad its inMucnrc ()\-(.|- his people, and which his 
enemies could not withstand. Oni' dear trieiid's heart was in his work during his 
stay among these people. He was often sorely tried in not l)eiug able to carry out 
his plans for their welfare, and the four years of toil and mental strain impaired 
his health, and soon after leaving the Reservation he was stricken lightly by paral- 
ysis. He said, the next day, very cheerfully, "This is a warning that my steward- 
ship will soon be ended; at any hour the summons may come." In answer to a 
remark he said : "Call it not light, nor tell me many recover from such atta-ks 
and live long. I know what it means — 'Set thine house in order.' I now put aside 
all the plans I have been laying for the future; the consideration of what is before 
me will not shorten my days. I am ready, but I will endeavor to wait patiently till 
my time comes. The Lord has been good to me, let Him do to me as seemeth to Him 
best." His faculties were mostly clear through many similar attacks, they, as is 
usual, increasing in intensity. Though feeble in walking, he went among his friends, 
and was sometimes engaged in giving utterance to the fullness of feeling which 
abounded with him. During the time he was an invalid he f reciuently expressed that 
he was living but for the moment; he believed he should soon have the final call. 
While very feeble, a few months before his death, he made an effort to visit one with 
M'hom there had been a long friendship, but who was so near the close of life he was 
scarcely able to see him. As E. P. wished it so strongly, he was admitted to the 
chamber; the scene was a solemn one, never to be forgotten. But few words passed. 
E., slowly, and in a low tone, suited to the condition of his friend, said, "I have 
wanted to see thee once more in this life, before we enter upon the other. We have 
loved each other here. I, too, am expecting a summons; mine may come first — at 



>ir ,if Dr. Eduard Painter. 

any moment; hnt 1 am awaiting- it with joy. Siicli, too, are thy feelings, 1 know." 
A warm assent was given, there was a loving gTas])ing of hands, a tearfnl parting, 
and the words, •• Farewell till we meet in Heaven." The two have entered into rest. 
"When the Angel of Death had breathed upon him, and almost touched him with his 
wand, his devotional spirit continued strong. The last few days of his life were 
passed in unconsciousness, but his serene and peaceful close, and his frequent 
expressions of readiness to meet the last messenger, have given the assurance that 
he has realized thi- fullillment of the promise, "?Ie that overcometh shall inherit 
ail things, and 1 will be his God and he shall be Mv son." 





>%'ii.i,iAM 1>ainti-;r. ) 


Descendants of Sanniel Painter. 16'.}ii-liJ0S. hy Ornn C. Painte 

Louisa Gilpiu Painter was bom at Ridley Creek, Delaware, December 11th. 1814. 
Her parents were Joseph Gilpin and Sarah Peirce Gilpin, who were married in 1802. 
She was the sixth of seven children, the others being Samuel Peirce, Sarah Ann, Ann 
Matilda, Alban, Lydia and Gideon Jakes. 

She married, September 1st, 18o4, Edward Painter, by whom she had seven chil- 
dren — Helen, Clara, William, Emilie, Joseph Gilpin, Samuel Gilpin and Charles; of 
whom Clara, William, Emilie and Samuel Gilpin are living. (See Dr. Edward 

The parents of Joseph Gilpin were Gideon Gilpin and Sarah Gregg Gilpin, who 
were married Decemlier 1st, 17()2. 

The parents of Gideon (Jilpin were Joseph Gilpin and Mary Caldwell Gilpin, who 
were married December 17th, 1729. 

The parents of Joseph Gilpin were Joseph Gilpiu and Hannah Glover Gilpin, who 
were married February 2.']d, 1691-2. 

Joseiili Gilpiu, who married Mary Caldwell, was a brother of Isaac Gilpin, who 
married Mary Painter, October 21st, 1736, and Esther Gilpin, who married Samuel 
Painter, August 5th, 1741, whose names appear in the third generation of this book. 

She was a member of the distinguished Gilpin family, whose line of descent has 
been traced from Richard de Guyljun in the reign of King John, of England, about the 
year 1206. To Richard de Guylpin had been granted, for slaying a wild boar which 
devastated Cumlierlaud and Westmoreland Counties, the estate of Kentmere, in West- 
moreland County, Kngland, l)y the Raroii of Kendal. 

"From their first appearance in history the Guyl})ins are mentioned in the annals 
of England as prominent in the affairs of the nation, they have been warriors, states- 
men, councilmen, and from time to time mighty in the ecclesiastic world. They dif- 
fered widely as to point of view, but were alike in their devotion to a cause once 

"In 1696 Joseph Gilpin, with his wife, Hannah Glover, and two children, together 
with John West and family, came to the Colonies aud settled in Birmingham, Chester 
county. Pa., to which place they walked from New Castle, where they landed. The 
persecution of the Friends in England was the direct cause of his seeking a new home 
and country. 

"With the energy of his race Mr. Gilpin labored under the new circumstances of 
his life. His first home was a cave in the ground, a "dug-out," in which he aud his 
family lived for about four years, two of his children being born there, and it is stated 
that his home in the dry soil proved, from a sanitary point of consideration, 
as healthy as any he may have had in later years. The original grant of land to 
Joseph Gilpin was for 625 acres. His fanning proved most prosperous, and he soon 
became patriarch of the locality. Upon his lands the Indians set up their wigwams; 
they slept within his house; his doors and heart were ojien to the immigrant, arriving, 
as he had done, friendless upon the shores of a new land; his children played with 
the young savages, and from them learned hunting, fishing and shooting with the 


Louisa (iUplu Pahifer. 

bow. He lived until the year 1741, leuvins: at his death fifteen children and forty-five 
grandchildren, and it is estimated that in the year 1800 he had as many as one thou- 
sand descendants in this country. He was a veritable Abraham; his barns were full 
of g-rain; his harvests rich; his herds numeroiis; his lands vast, and his name has been 
multiplied a thousand-fold." 

Louisa Gilitin Painter was beloved fnr her gentleness and amial)ility. The spirit 
of charity, which ever dwelt with her, did not discover itself through any great deeds, 
calling forth expressions of the world's commendation, but in a quiet, unostentatious 
manner she dispensed her gifts and gave her willing services and ministrations in 
every duty that lay close at hand, to all alike. 

She was left a widow in 1875, and a year later visited Denver, where, in that high 
altitude, she contracted bronchitis, and was compelled, in a few months, to retrace her 
steps eastward. Eight years after, she went to Los Angeles, California, where she fell 
ill and was confined for two months to her bed. Upon her return to Baltimore her 
health improved. Here she lived until she di(^d of pneumonia. May 16th, 1896. 

Her interest never abated in all that transpired in the literary, political and work- 
a-day world, she many times using her ever ready pen to urge to adherence to consci- 
enti-Qus work in each spiritual calling — to do justly and love mercy in all things. 

(See "Descendants of (lideon Gilpin" by Joseph Elliott Gilpin; also "Gilpin 
Memories, with an Account of the Author," by Rev. William Gilpin, Vicar of Boldre.) 

.J()wi:i>ii <;ii.i»i.N. 

(Father of I.ouisa Gilpin Paintkr. horn May IT, 1780, dieu M.vrcii ao. 1Mo8. 

He lived in Newark. Me^v .Tersey, and in Sandy Sprino. 



By Emilie Painter Jackson. 

(Died in Baltimore, on the Kith of Fifth Month, 1896, Louisa G. Painter, relict of 
Dr. Edward Painter, in the .Si'nd year of her age.) 

(From thr Friends' Iniplligntrcr. Mai/. 1S90.) 

1 believe that a brief .sketch of the life and Christian character of our dear 
mother will be accei)table to the readers of the InfelUgencer, some of whom have 
known her during many years of her life, which was rounded out beyond the allotted 

In childhood, mother was beloved for her gentleness and amiability, virtues 
which grew with her growth into girlliood, and in the woman glowed and expanch'd 
in the sunshine of the All-Father's love; and under its benign influence she lived the 
good life, practically. The spirit of charity which ever dwelt with her did not dis- 
cover itself through any great deeds, calling forth expressions of the world's com- 
mendation; but in a cpiiet, unostentatious way she dispen.-cd her gifts and gave her 
willing service, and ministrations in every duty that lay ch)se at hand, to all alike, 
realizing thus the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. In later life her 
unselfishness and complete surrender of all she possessed for the pleasure and happi- 
ness of those about her was manifested to a remarkable degree, and lived with her 
until the hour when her pure soul passed beyond all mortal ken, to receive in her 
Father's house, we trust, the inheritance of the blest. 

In the capacity of wife and in the holy calling of motherhood she lived up to her 
highest conception of right. As a wife, using her gentle influence in calming, sooth- 
ing, and modifying the intense sensitive nature of the one who had come so closely 
into her life, — acting, as it was often said, as a balance-wheel, averting many a 
collision against the jagged points along life's pathway, and bringing about that 
harmony and unity which alone insures marital happiness. As a mother — blessed 
name — a thousand memories present themselves, and yet could there be a sweeter 
tribute paid than that she did her duty well, making her chiklren glad and thankful 
that she lived; with tenderness and love, ever holding the God-given right she bore 
the child to wisely admonish and advise in man and womanhood as well, thus keep- 
ing alive in them the feeling of dependence and child-like love in its sacredness, so 
akin to that we bear to Him who gave us life. 

Hannah Louisa Gilpin was the daughter of Joseph and Sarah Giljnn. She was 
born nearWilmingt(m, Del., in 1814, and received her eilucation in that city, her parents 
in the meantime moving to Maryland. In 1829 she joined them there. She went by 
the stage and steamboat of that day, and one of her companions in this journey was 
Edward Painter, then a boy of sixteen, who at once formed a friendship for the mod- 
est, beautiful girl which later on ripened into mutual love, resulting in their nuir- 
riage in 1834. Their first home was made on the picturesque banks of the Brandy- 
wine, where my father was engaged in the manufacture of pajier in the old mills 
still standing there. Thence they removed, in a few years, to Triadelphia, in Mary- 
land, a little village, together with four hundred acres of land purchased by my 


Louisa Oilpi)i Painter. 

g-raudfather and presented to my father ui>()ii reachiiii;- his majority, and here with 
William Welsh, of Philad('l])hia. as one of tlie firm, lie eari-ie(l on the business of 
cotton spinning'. 

The next move was to a farm in tlie vi( inity of Baltimore, and after several 
years there, to Harford County, antl to Fallston, from which plai'e, in 186'J, mother 
accompanied father to the Omaha Indian Agency, in Nebraska, and there she cheer- 
fully entered into the duties cf an Agent's wife, with all its labors, vicissitudes, and 
responsibilities, interesting herself in these wards of the nation, feeding the innu- 
merable applicants from her own larder, an 1 clotiiing alike the deserving and the unde- 

She was happy in her new environnu nt, though so remote from family and 
friends, and enjoyed the beautiful world about her, the iirairies carpeted with bril- 
liant flowers, the ever-varying landscape and luminous valleys. Over these prairies 
she once rode 125 miles in an open wagon to the Pawnee Reservation, declaring 
upon her return that so little was she fatigued she could directly make the same trip 

Their term at the Agency exjjiring in 1873, my parents then located in Balti- 
more, and in 1875 mother was left a widow. A year later she vLsited Denver, and 
in that higli altitude contracted bronchitis, and was compelled in a few months to 
retrace her steps. Seven years after she again journeyed to the sunset land, going 
alone via Atlanta, Georgia. The following winter she extended her travels and 
reached California, where, at Los Angeles, she fell ill, and during the two months of 
her confinement within doors, continually longed to once more return to her native 
Maryland. In this she was gratifieil. 

Although, for the remainder of her life she was afflicted with a severe cough, 
she was otherwise blessed with ))erfect health, and a sound constitution. Retaining 
all of her faculties, and surrounded by every comfort in a delightful home in Balti- 
more, with friends she dearly loved, the few years left her were full of happiness 
wliich she freely dis])ensed to others by her cheeriness and sunny' nature, loving the 
companionsliip of old and young alike. 

Hei- interest lU'Ver abated in all that transpired in the literary, political, and 
work-a-<lay worhl, many times using her ever-ready pen to urge an adherence to 
conscientious work in each especial calling, — to do justly, and love mercy in all 

At last, in the beautiful month of ]\la> .when the buds were bursting and the birds 
singing in their happy mating-tiiiie. the supreme moment came. During four weeks 
of illness she was patient and resigned, awaiting the inevitable end with the Chris- 
tian fortitude which had characterized her all through her long and well-spent 


By Emilie Painter (Jackson). 

(From The Children s Friend. March. 1870.) 

There are many things in this far Western land, and indeed immediately around 
us, to amuse and interest the children, as well as those who have come to maturer 
years, and I know most of them would gladly lay a^ide Ww'w playthiuiis for a time 
to listen while I tell them about the Indians, or Red ^Icn of the torcst, as they are 
called, though they have pitched their tents, and built their nuul wigwams upon the 
open prairies, where but few trees grow, except upon the margin of the rivers, or 
gulches, which are deep ravines, filled with shrubbery and flowers, growing in wild 

On the Omaha Reservation, the whole tribe is divided into three separate vil- 
lages, the inhabitants thereof being formed into bands, at the head of which is a 
Chief, or Brave, or some person of distinction amongst them. 

It is a curious sight, and perhaps not a pleasant one to our refined taste, to wit- 
ness the habits and customs of their every-day lives. Often two or three families 
are huddled together in a little tent, cooking, eating and sleeping in the same apart- 
ment. I one day peeped into a mud lodge and saw a complete circle of men, scpiaws 
and papooses of various sizes, seated on the floor around a huge fire, which was 
blazing high up in the centre; one of the squaws was busy preparing the evening 
meal; kneeling down beside the frying pan she was in the act of cutting chunks of 
fresh beef from a large piece she held in her lap, while several hungry dogs and cats 
sat by, looking longingly at the precious morsels as they fell into the vessel, now and 
then diving for, ami getting a piece in an unguarded moment. 

A few days ago a sleigh load of us started out for a ride; we crossed the Bluffs, 
and went down toward a Lake which I have named Necoma, a pretty sheet of water 
in summer, where large flocks of wild geese and ducks are constantly seen swimming 
on its smooth surface, or feeding amongs.t the tall grass and reeds which grow along 
its margin. This Lake also abounds in fish, and the Indians are soon to have a seine, 
and they will probably catch enough to supply the whole Reservation. 

On our way we met several Indians of the "Winnebago tribe. They had crossed 
the Missouri on the ice to the Iowa shore to himt, a sport they are very fond of. 
Tliey were mounted on their little j ionics, or Shanghas, that were bending down under 
tlie heavy weight of their i-jilei-s. and large ])ieces of venison suspended on eithei- 
side of them. It is wonderful how much these small animals can carry. I have seen 
them loaded with boxes, bundles, and a variety of cooking utensils, until the pile was 
about two feet high, and then a little papoose would be strapped on the top. This is 
the manner in which their jionies are packed when preparing to go out on the hunt. 

After passing the Winnebago Indians, we came to the edge of the Lake, and 
descended the steep) slippery banks, and were soon gliding rapidly over the smooth 
snow-covered ice. We were not much alarmed, although the ice cracked, as the 
horses stepped briskly along, for the weather is so intensely cold at times in this 
climate that it freezes several feet deep. I thought how the little boys and girls 
"back East" would enjoy the fine skating ground. We rode more than two miles 




lUi tho 

Lake, then entered the 


, to he slieltered hv til 


hy tJH'ld.iili hluffs. \V( 


I s(|Tiaw, and lier little 

AtiKDif/ the Omaha Iu<lia)is. 

I' "tind}er,'' -where we saw several tents erected for tlie 
le massive cottonwood trees, and protected from the cold 
e drove u\) a bank almost perpendicular to visit a poor 
' ones, living in a tent or tepee, smoked nearly black. The 
shinija-iihinnas (the Indian name for children) we soon metamorphosed into differ- 
ent looking beings, by a supply of warm clothing from a bundle under the seat of the 
"bob-sleigh." They were delighted, and scarcely knew themselves, in their new 
dresses, of bright colors. They have never before been clad like white children, but a 
short calico shirt, a faded, tattered blanket, and leggings of red or blue flannel is 
mostly their outlit. 

The sound of our sleigh-lx'lls drew a crowd of little ones around us, and we 
looked with pitying eyes ujton their forms scantily clothed, as they were a part of 
those who had not yet shared their jxirtion of the good warm clothing. 

We saw many bright eyes, and intelligent fat es among them, some of which we 
only caught a glance at occasionally, for they are very modest, and wear their blan- 
kets thrown over their lieads, and can shut themselves from sight as closely as a 
terra])in in its shell. Atter their curiosity bad been satisfied, they all scampered 
;;way. pell-mell to a steep hill, wIktc thc'v had been coasting, like the little children 
in tile l-]ast, not with beautiful painted sleiis, hut home-made one<, rude s])ecimens, 

Retui'uing, we saw many Indian ])onies nib))ling the tender twigs and dried ])ea 
vines which grow wild in great aliundauce. Some were scraping away the snow 
with theii- feet to get the grass buried beueatli it. These ponies live out most of the 
winter, and are obliged to lie on the ground when the snow is very deep. But God 
tempers the wind to the lamb that is shorn, as Sterne says, and also to these little 
ponies, and though they l)ecome thin and ]iooi- during the winter, they soon fatten in 
the spring, u])on the green grass which covei's the ]irairies. 

We i)assed by several Indian graves on the hill-tojis. They have no grave-yards 
wherein to bury their dead, but mostly select the highest bluffs, so that when they 
return from the hunting grounds of the great Wali-Kunda (or (Jreat Spirit) they 
can look far over the prairies. 

These poor ignorant ])eo])l(> have many strange ideas about the souls of the de- 
parted. When they die, a long loud ciy or wail is heard away out on the night 
air, sounding very ominous to unaccustomed ears. This is their way of exhibiting 
the grief they have not yet learned to conceal. Years ago it was the custom to sus- 
pend the bodies of their dead to the limbs of trees. Now they bury them in neatly 
made coffins, though a few dig graves and jihnc the bodies in a sitting posture, and 
build small houses, or sheds, over them, somewhat similar to a hencoop. These stand 
out in relief against the sky, and luvsent a cuiious ap]jearance to the eye of a 
stranger. These grave? are held very sacred, and proofs of their affection are mani- 
fested from time to time by scattering aronnd them bread and meat, and other ar- 
ticles of food, which they believe will still be enjoyed ))y them. 

If a chief or prominent person amongst them (lies, his blanket, pipe and trap- 
pings are placed in the grave with liim, and sometimes his favorite horse is killed, or 
tied to a tree to starve to death. This is very cruel, but we hope in time, when they 
become educated and more civilized, they will abandon these customs that have de- 
scended to them from time immemoiial. We rode over to the Island, which is 
thickly covered with heavy limber. We icached it by crossing a substantial bridge, 
lately built by the Agent, witli the assistaiu'c of the Indians, under his direction. They 
are felling the huge trees, and liauling the logs to the sawmill to be prepared for 
l>uilding their houses in the spring. 


Atiiiitig the Otnalui Indians. 

The Indians have, heretofore, considered it veiy degrading for men to labor, and 
their hands are in consequence soft and smooth, and the muscles undeveloped. The 
squaws generally do all the drudgery, planting and working the com, hauling the 
wood, scooping out holes in the ground to bury their corn, etc. And even now, one 
can be seen with a gi'eat log on her back, which would puzzle a strong white man 
to lift, and trudging along slowly and patiently with her burden. 

But now a change is gradually coming over "the spirit of their dream," and 
the prospect of seeing comfortable houses dotted all over the prairies, houses thev 
can live in and call home, has inspired tl em with energy and industry surpassing all 
expectations. They are delighted witli the bright future before them, and are 
eager and anxious to s-ee tlicir new houses as you little children are to peep into 
your stockings after Kris-Kringle has lilled them with good things. 

After I tell you about old Umba-habba, or Half-a-day, I must finish my story, 
or you will grow tired of listening. He is a great fat old Indian who comes up to 
the Age7icy for vamoos-ka (bread) and matches. On one occasion we intimated the 
great necessity there was for ' ' a change of linen, ' ' and also the use of soap and water, 
and presented him with a good warm flannel shirt. A few days after we saw him 
wending his way over the prairies, and before reaching the house, he sat down by 
the roadside, threw off his robe to the waist, and scraping up the snow around him, 
washed his arms and face, stroked up his hair, then unfolded the new garment he 
had snugly tucked away, slipped it on, and came walking up to the Agency, puffing, 
and fanning himself, although the weather was bitter cold. 

I must now bid you good-bye. It may be you will hear from me again. 

Mu.s. Louisa Gilpin Painter on the Nebraska 



By Emilie Painter Jackson. 

(I'libliihcd in Ihc Friends' liilclli(jrnrcr. in li;S7.) 

In the year 18(J1), while our country wa.s gradually readjustiug its atfairs, and 
seeking to regain its normal condition after the terrible ordeal of civil war, General 
Grant, then at tlie helm of Government wisely guiding the ship of state, inaugurated 
a Peace Policy towards the Indians, which at once endeared liiui to the lovers of its 
pure principles. His design was' to select men from the different religious denomina- 
tions to act as agents to various tribes, instead of having them placed under the 
care and supervision of the War Department, as heretofore. This humanitarian 
step, taken by a great soldier whose sword had scarcely been sheathed in its scab- 
bard, met with loud applause and hearty commendation, and measures were immedi- 
ately taken to select the right men for the responsible position; and but a shoi't time 
elapsed before the new agents were at their posts and the experiment put to the test. 

It so happened that my father, Dr. Edward Painter, had from motives purely 
philanthropical but recently graduated from tlie school of medicine, and was chosen 
as a suitable person to represent the Friend, or Quaker, element ; it being known that 
he was a minister also, and was supposed to be able to preach and practice as well. 
Most happily, his lot was cast amongst the Omahas, a peaceable tribe then occupying 
the reservation comiorising the whole county of Black Bird, in the State of Nebraska, 
some 70 miles above the city of Omaha, and lying partially along the Missouri river, 
or "Big Muddy," as it was usually called. His advent ui)on the scene of his new and 
untried labor was in the flowery month of ^lay. and as the old agency wagon lum- 
bered along over the ten-mile stretch between the town of Decatur, and the future 
home, he, with the dear, faithful mother at his side, was enjoying an exi)evience at 
once novel and interesting. 

My father was a great lover of nature, and when his eye wandered over the bil- 
lowy sea of prairie, carpeted with the rarest and most brilliant Howers, with the tall 
green waving grass in the pretty valleys, the serpentine Missouri in the hazy dis- 
tance, and over all the l)luest of bending skies, he felt a glow of jileasure that his 
work was to begin in such a beautiful huid. 

The writer declined to accompany them into what was imagined to be a howling 
wilderness, remote from all civilization, but when the word flew across 2000 miles, 
telling of so much that was strange and wonderful and romantic, a trunk was hastily 
packed, and not many days elapsed before the far-away destination was reached. 
The new agent was advised, soon after his arrival, by some of the employees, that 
the advent of a long-faced, serious Quaker, wearing the notorious broad brim and 
straight coat of the sect, and who would no doubt exercise his authority in severe 
restrictions and arbitrary rule, laying out a narrow path in which all must walk, and 
reversing all things in general, was not anticipated with the most pleasurable emo- 
tions. These fears, however, were not long in being dispelled when the genial face 
under the broad-brim once smiled happily upon them. 

It would take a volume to do justice to the condition, morally, physically, and 
financially, in which were found these wards of the Nation, who it was proved — 

Three Year.'^ Amungst the Oinahn ludlans. 

after a thorough investigation — hail Itei'n entirely at the mercy of men some of 
whom were dishonest and nniiriucipled, and part of the annnity dne the Indians had 
been diverted from its ijrojx-r eliannels, to enrich the agents and others beyond the 
confines of the Reservation. As an instance, it was found that the flour for distri- 
bution was put into bags holding less than specified. Beef had been purchased by 
contractors, butchered, and the best appropriated by themselves, and the remainder 
fell to the share of the tribe, who had no means of redress. Vouchers for building 
and othei- i)in|ioses were signed before being filled, and the whole system was one of 
coiruption, and ralculated to benefit the parties employed to administer to the wants 
of the Indians, instead of the Indians themselves. Such an outlook was not the most 
insiiiring or encouraging, but it mattered little when the mind and heart of my father 
were filled with but one purpose, that of overcoming all obstacles; that justice, mercy 
and the right should prevail. 

The new ai;'ent had been at his post but a few weeks, when an opportunity was 
offered, of not only pro\ing the efficacy of peace principles, but to be of lasting 
benefit to the two tribes concerned. The Omahas had been raided by a band of 
Kiowas, from a reservation some 400 miles away, in Southern Kansas, near the boi-- 
ders of the Indian Territory. These Indians had lieen at enmity with the Omahas 
for many years, manitestinii- their hittei- hostility when coming in contact on the 
open prairies. When a raid was eveidually made, and a score of ponies captured and 
successfully run off. there was a (•oniniotion in the camp, war paint was freely smeared 
over the visages and liodies of the chiefs and braves, bows were strung and quivers 
filled with arrows ami slung across the shoulders, and vigorous preparations made 
for the warpath. Judge, then, of their sui prise and dismay when a fiat went forth, 
thwarting fJH'ir \-engeful intentions! A spirit of rebellion was rife, but soon quelled, 
and through the aid of an intei-prefer, the new regime was explained to their satis- 

A dozen or more of the most influential men of the tribe were sununoned before 
the Agent, re(|Uested to divest themselves of all hre-arnis, and get into readiness for 
a journey of a nnitpie and venturesome character, concerning the outcome of which 
they were dubious, though they were willing for the novel undertaking. The first 
part of the journey was made by rail, and at a station on the confines of the plain a 
wagon was secured to convey the Agent and his ]iarfy to the Kiowa Reservation. 
Their approach had been heralded, and they were soon met and confronted by an 
Indian lii'ave, clad in all the ])araphernalia of war, and armed to the teeth. He 
])]anteil his jion} in front of the wagon, leveled his six-shooter and demanded a halt, 
which, discretion being the better part of valor, they quickly obeyed. The interpreter, 
who-e language was the same as the Kiowa, then explained their mission of peace; 
how they had come, at the instigation of their new agent, to recover their ponies, 
leaving behind them all fire-arms, but that they would not return without their right- 
ful property. After a few moments of parleying, the brave dashed past the wagon, 
fired off a number of volleys, and i)utting whip to his pony was soon lost in the dis- 
tance. Proceeding on their way. tin- party soon reached the Kiowa camp. The In- 
dian scout had anticiiiafed them; tiieir peaceful intentions had been proclaimed, and 
all preparation had been made for their reception, which resulted in a council being 
held, the inevitable pipe passed around and smoked by friend and foe, the ponies 
all restored to their owners; two hostile tribes made friends, and the adventurers 
returned triumiihant and crowned with the garlands of i)eace. 

This uni)rece(lented event placed the Omahas in an entirely new attitude toward 
the Agent; they at once recognized in him a friend, a father — Da-<le-ha, as they called 
him henceforth — and one who had their interest and welfare at heart. 


Three Years A>uoiif/st the OiihiIhi 1)uIi(,hs. 

Rear of tiik Omaha .V.(;kn<v homk. sho^vinc; 1>k. 1-:i)v 

FKEI,IN<; AN INDIAN'S l»l-I.SK, MRJS. L,0^;•I^SA (i. 1»A1 

My father now entered upon the great labor of agent anil i)hy.sieian combined, 
with renewed energy and hope and enthusiasm. But soon many subjects presented 
themselves, calculated to dampen the ardor of the most sanguine, and to hamper and 
partially frustrate the work which had begun under such favorable auspices. 

A Presbyterian Mission had been in operation on the Reservation for some 
years, and there appeared to lie a faction, under control of the missionary, who 
opposed all innovations or influences leading into an opposite direction to his own 
plans for the benetit of his adherents. Then again, the outside i»arties who had here- 
tofore "feathered their nests," — so to speak, — from the i)roceeds of the contracts 
made for supi)lying provisions, etc., to the Indians, naturally grew dissatisfied, drew 
up a petition and had it signed by disaffected white men and Indians connected 
with the faction alluded to, praying for the removal of the Agent, for various rea- 
sons specified. This caused an immense amount of "red tape," and more annoyance 
and delay, but eventually the hope of bringing about the former state of affairs was 
abandoned, and the Agent was left to pursue his own course. 


Three Yenrs JiiKnu/sf tlw OiikiUu Indians. 





TIIK i;ntran( I 


c;ei> skvkn. stani)in<. 


An imixirtaiit st<']i soon taken in the interest of the Indians, — an ori.ninal idea, 
I believe, witli my t'atlier, — was that of breaking up the tribal relation. Through a 
trusted and intelligent interjireter all family relationships were traced out, the peo- 
ple were grouped into families, and each given a Christian name, which was indeed 
no easy task. Then the next thing in order was to divide their land in severalty, 
allotting 160 acres to the married, and 60 acres to the single men and women, 
finally a patent was applied for, which was intended to secure the land to the 
owner. Unfortunately, the mills of the gods at Washington ground slowly, and 
the much-hoped-for bill did not pass during the new Agent's term of office; though I 
believe it afterwards did, with some revisions. 

A spirit of industry, altogether unknown, was now infused into the nature of 
the red men. As an incentive towards it, a plan was made to build a cottage on 
each allottment of land. There was a saw-mill on the Reservation, oxen and wagons 
were supplied, and on an island near by was a growth of tine timber. The Indian 
who first cut down a certain number of trees, liaulci] the logs to the saw-mill, and 
then the planks to the building site, would have his house put u]). 


Three Yems Aiiiongsi the OiiiaJia Iiidiaii-^ 

Dr. Ed>vari) 


Chiefs whose hauds were as soft as au infant's, and braves and yonng "buclvs" 
who had scorned to labor like a "squaw," laid aside their blankets and wielded the 
axe awkwardly, but with a will and purpose, cheered on by the new-born hope of 
individual ownership and possession never before experienced. 

This plan of work once mapped out and put into successful execution, others 
presented themselves for consideration, and as my father was a man expert at any- 
thing, from writing poetry to hitting the right nail on the head, he was not long in 
discovering what was best to be done by way of improvciuent, cultivation of the 
land, and the advancement and cultivation of the Indians tlicmselves. Good roads 
were to be made to different points, bridges were to be built ov(n- the creeks instead 
of fording them, school houses were erected, etc. In order to do this a white man 
was appointed as head carpeiili'i-. and instead of employing men outside of the Res- 
ervation, stout, young Indian- gladly accepted the position at moderate wages, with 
a promise of promotion and better pay as they deserved it. In every avenue opened 
for industrial pursuits, Indians were employed, and directed by efficient men, who 
thoroughly understood their peculiar nature, and how to control and deal with it. 

It was deemed advisable to place a portion of tlie executive power in the hands 
of the Indians, and for this purpose a score or more of the best and most reliable 




luiisl fhr OiiHihd Imliant 

.lil) l*AINTi;i! 

iiK'ii \\{;vv foniicd iiitii a l)()ily of policemen, each tornially rcccivhi.i;- his commis- 
sion, and decorated with a yorgeons insignia of oCfict', whitdi he wore witli an air of 
authority, which authority he was frequently called upon to assert. The cases which 
came up for consideration and advisement were legion, and the greatest discretion- 
ary power had to be brought to bear where ignorance and superstition, or a lack of 
confidence was manifested. Many came like simi^le-hearted children to consult and 
advise with the wise father about their domestic and other woes, to which he lis- 
tened with kindly sympathy and attention, and if the occasion demanded it, a coun- 
cil was called and the matter laid before the chiefs for consideration and adjust- 
ment. In these councils could be heard the eloquence of a learned statesman. After 
the pi]ie of fragant "kinnekinick" was passed around and smoked by each, a chief 
would rise with the greatest dignity, fold his blanket about him with unstudied 
grace, leaving his right arm free for the most natural gesticulation, and deliver his 
address in a flow of language which a senator might envy. At times, when the wrongs 
of his unfortunate race were the burden of his subject, his power of eloquence was 
at his best, and his similes and appeals for the redress of their hapless condition 
were poetical in the extreme. This is a true statement, and viewed from no senti- 
mental standpoint. It has ever l^een acknowledged by tliose who are unprejudiced, 
and have been disinterested listeners to the addresses in the Indian coimcils. 


Three Years Amongst the Omahxi Indians. 

One of tlie most difficult tasks my father found it his duty to perform was the 
doing away with some of their ancient customs that had become almost second nature 
to them. Some of tliese they meekly submitted to, while in others it was almost 
impossible to influence them. They would cling to them as tenaciously as some 
among ns, in this day of progression, cling to the traditions under the old Je^Rish 

It was customary,' when a noted chief or brave was buried, that his favorite pony 
was smeared with paint and gaily decorated, and then sacriticcd, tliat it might bear 
the spirit of the departed to the "happy hunting ground," but it was evident that 
the advancement and civilization of the Indians could not he successfully accom- 
plished while such cruelties were submitted to. It was also the practice a few years 
before that when a child or infant died, the aged grandfather or mother was placed 
alive in the grave, in a sitting posture, with the dead Ijody in his arms, and there cov- 
ered up with, earth and left to his fate. This, however, had been discontinued, also 
that of suspending the bodies of the dead in trees, after being wrapped in a blanket 
or robe. At that time they were buried on the top of the highest bluffs, that the 
spirit could command a view of the surrounding country when it returned tempo- 
rarily to the body, which lay under a little house similar to a hen coop, and around 
which was ])laced eatables of different kinds for the benefit of the visiting spirits 


Three Years Amoiif/sf the Omalui Inrli,iH.- 

.^^-T, >4 .^ ^, ilK 

BBB^W^^^ /^l^^^^^lT^ 



I remember ouce attending an Indian burial. It was on a wintry day in Novem- 
ber, and tlie wind swejjt over the wild waste of prairie, and on its wings was borne 
a wail of lamentation. I turned my pony in the direction from which it came, and 
rode up to a rude building in which a young Indian man had died, and where were con- 
gregated the relatives and friends. The squaws lifted up their voices in the wildest 
tones of grief, as they listened to the sermon of the missionary. The rade coffin 
was then placed upon the bob-sled and covered by a United States flag, as he had 
been in the army, and drawn over the crusty snow, followed by the dusky forms of 
men and squaws on foot. The procession wound along up the steep sides of the 
bluff, until the open grave was reached at the summit, just as the sun was dipping 
down in tlie West, easting long shadows over the weird scene; the body of Tannga- 
Gahe was biwcrcd into the grave, but no sound of clods fell on the coffin. The 
squaws brought their little offerings of bread and meat, and trinkets once prized by 
the dead, and quietly placed them in the grave; over it a blanket was spread, and 
then all turned and silently stole away. 

It is said that in former years, when the death of a noted Indian occurred, the 
relatives lacerated their bodies in a most frightful manner; young men would stand 
around the tepee or mud lodge where the body lay, almost naked in the severest 
weather, and thrust long-pointed sticks and skewers through their arms without 
flinching. It is at once encouraging to the cause of civilization to know that, as they 


Three Years A»io)igst the OiikiIki I)idians 

come more and more under Cliristian iiitinence and are edneated tliese customs are 
gradually abandoned, especially by the rising generation. 

Not far from the Agency home stood the blockhouse, an octagonal building with 
a high flag-pole in the centre. It was used for the purpose of storing the ammuni- 
tion, which was intended as a gentle reminder in case of uprising or disobedience to 
the orders of the Agent in charge. When the Peace Policy came into effect, there 
was no furtlier use for the contents of this bixilding, andUeneral Ord, then stationed 
at Omaha, was notified, and wagons were sent to convey it away. It was then con- 
verted into a school house, which with one or two others was soon well filled with me 
zhenjhas and nu zhenjhas, and with teachers appointed whose hearts were in the 
good work. The task began of training the young minds, which were far from being 
dull or inactive. A night school was also opened for the older members of the tribe, 
which was well patronized. Here object-lessons were given, readily learned, and 
thoroughly enjoyed both by teacher and pupils. Sabbath schools were held in the 
new school buildings, and all were made welcome. Chapters in the New Testament 
were written out and simplified, read and explained. The following Sabbath the 
children were called upon to repeat what they had remembered, which they did with 
remarkable accuracy and application of its import. Thus every branch of the work 


TJirce Ycar^ Amongst the OiikiIki hulians. 














^ iHi 


progressed satisfactorily, Iveeping tlie Agent active in investigating and disposing 
of the man}- oases that eame up for his consideration. The duties of the physician had 
also to be fultilled, and the aflSieted of all ages came to the council house to have 
their ailments diagnosed and medicine given. Some had teeth extracted and surgi- 
cal operations performed, which they submitted to with the lieroic stoicism of their 

Such eontidence had these people in the new father as a medicine man that one 
day old Umpa Tunga, or Big Elk, came with his squaw bearing a dead infant in liis 
arms, imploring him to use every effort to kindle the life spark again. 

In the blockhouse there were two floors; the upper one, as mentioned before, 
was used for a school room, while the lower one was a sort of prison, in which refrac- 
tory Indians — those violating the laws by stealing, or any kind of misdemeanors — 
were immuned. It was a source of gratification to know that it was not frequently 
occupied, and when an unfortunate was confined there for a certain length of time, 
he most invariably came out without manifesting any kind of ill-will towards the 

Dishonesty was found not to be much more frequent than amongst white men 
with more favorable environment. One young Indian, bright and intelligent, and 


Three Years Amongst the Omaha Indians. 

who had been educated at the Mission School, forged a note; it was the first and only 
crime of that nature heard of during the Agent's term of office, and should in no 
wise reflect upon the cause of education. Old Indian Betsy, a sturdy Amazon of the 
tribe, who could speak French and English, and whose life was a romantic and 
adventuroiis one, bringing down many a buffalo and trajiping wild animals, and 
trafficking with traders, was said to be shrewd and not altogether honest. Then, like 
many negroes who regard chicken stealing as a legitimate business, the Indians would 
run off ponies from the neighboring tribes, with a conscience void of offense, and 
count all that so much clear gain. 

The disregard of the marriage rite of civilized life was a subject of much solici- 
tation on the part of Ihe Agent. When he found that several white men, adopted 
into the tribe, had "squaw wives" where no civil ceremony had been performed, and 
only that of the tribe adopted which was the giving of several ]ionies to the ]iarents 
of the intended bride, my father lost no time in having these parties pidjierly united 
by the Presbyterian minister. Upon two occasions couples were married by Friends' 
ceremony, which with such environments was unique and interesting. 

Henry Fontenelle, a half-breed Indian, and brother to the great departed war 
chief, Black Bird, was left as guardian to a couple of nieces, who were recognized 
as princesses, so far as Indian royalty went. They were possessed of bright minds 
and well educated ; one of them having for several years attended a school in Eliza- 
beth, New Jersey, where she became engaged to a young white man, who was after- 
wards killed in the Union Army. Fontenelle was an ambitious man, and was deter- 
mined his nieces should become the wives of Nuskah — or white men; he used every 
endeavor to so influence them, but without avail, for the hearts of the pretty Indian 
maidens — one of whom was a servant in our home — were already given to young 
braves in their own tribe. Their persuasions having no effect, through the influ- 
ence of the Agent the stern guardian relented. The first marriage ever performed 

iii:u INDIAN i'< )N^ . ■■ 11 


Three Years Amongst the Omaha Indians. 

by the simple ceremony of the Friends took place in the new school house, where 
were gathered a picturesque crowd, comprised of blanketed Indians, those who had 
adopted citizens' dress, and white persons employed on the Resei-vation, all drawn 
tliitlicr to enjoy the ikixcI dccasion. The bridal party, who had been thoroughly 
instructed by the writer of this paper, entered and were seated upon chairs placed 
upon the raised platform. They included the bride and groom, with bride's maids 
and groom's men selected from amongst the blanketed Indians. The Agent, invested 
with the necessary authority, sat facing the party, and after the usual silence always 
observed by Fi-iemls upon such occasions, the bride and groom were motioned to 
arise, the groom taking the hand of the bride, and repeating the following words 
after the Agent: "I, Thomas Macaulay, take thee, Josephine Fontenelle, to be my 
wedded wife, promising through Divine assistance to be unto thee a faithful and lov- 
ing husband until death shall separate us." She, in a faint voice and downcast look, 
i-epeated her part, all of which was interpreted to the Indians who did not under- 
stand English. After tlie certificate was signed by the white people and the Indians 
made their mark, ictreshiiieiits were served by blanketed Indians, all enjoying the 
occasion, from tiie ,i;ieatest ciiief to the tiniest Shinga Zhingha. A year or more 
after, while wandering around in the Indian village, I was surprised to see Josephine 
F. Macaulay, robed in the habiliments of a squaw, pure and simple, and upon her 
back, wrapped securely in the folds of her blanket, was a little papoose, its bead-like 
eyes peeping at me with innocent wondering. I regretted to learn of this case of 
retrograding, especially among the educated, but I think it was an unusual one. 

It was some time before one unused to the character and habits of the Indian in 
iiis untutored state could be reconciled to the squaws performing most of the manual 
labor; their broad backs seemed to be fitted for the burden and they could carry 
immense loads ujion them. My father once told of a squaw, bent with the weight of 
years, who went out, lariat in hand, to bring wood to the tepee. Coming to a good- 
sized log, she lifted it sufficiently to slip the strap under it; she then lay down with 
her back to the log, secured the lariat across her shoulders, rolled over on hands and 
knees, and scramliling to her feet trotted off with her burden, leaving the beholder, 
who had a tender consideration for womankind, in a state of mental perturbation. 

Several visitors from the East, coming to the Agency Home across the prairie, 
noticed a squaw carrying a plow, while her ''liege lord" walked leisurely before her. 
(,>uestioning the proju-iety of such a proceeding, one of the men alighted from the 
veliicle and sought to remonstrate by signs and gestures, when to his consternation 
the s(|uaw deliberately |iut down her burden and was about to castigate the intruder, 
who ])eat a hasty retreat. 

The subject of old traditions, legendary lore, and sacred rites and ceremonies 
of the tribe could not be thoroughly treated in a short paiier. The giving of ponies 
to visiting Indians from distant reservations was always an occasion upon which 
dancing and feasting and strange performances held a prominent part. Here could 
be discovered the remains of what was ever sacred to the Indian in his untutored 
and wild state. Some of the dances were calculated to strike terror to the heart of 
the uninitiated. I remember upon one occasion when an aunt, directly from the East, 
greatly desired to witness a dance. It was a religious one, held in a mud lodge, in one 
of the \illai;es: the only entrance to it was throiigh a long, dark passage-way, which 
led to an inuuense circular room which was dimly lighted from a hole at the top. 
The Indians, who were all dressed in Nature's broad-cloth, save the usual breech- 
cloth, were seated around the fire in the centre of the lodge. They were painted in the 
most hideous manner, and decorated with feathers and many kinds of war trappings. 
Our situation seemed to be an unenviable one, especially when we discovered that the 


Three Years Amongst the OhkiJki. Indians. 

only means of egress was closed up by the crowd of Indians who were witnessing the 
affair. When the dance began, with wild savage gestures and unearthly yells, my 
Catholic relative grasped the crucifix at her side, and with a look of terror on her 
face held it to her lips, muttering long prayers, until a chance for making our exit 
appeared, which we took advantage of without standing upon the order of going. 

There was one custom so dear to the heart of the red man that my father 
saw tit not to disturb during the first two years of his ofifice, and that was the annual 
hunt. After the maize was all planted and the crops in, the visions of great herds 
of Tanugas, feeding on the buffalo grass away out on the prairie, along the Repub- 
lican river, haunted them, and stirring preparations would begin. Mounting my 
little Indian pony — Dixie — I would gallop over to the camp of some twenty or thirty 
white tepees, pitched temporarily in a grassy valley, and watch the novel proceed- 
ings. Amongst the men all was stir and activity, dashing from one camp to another 
with bows and arrows at their backs, rifles held across the saddle bow and blankets 
flying to the breeze in their rapid transit. While tliis scene was being enacted the 
squaws were not idle. To them fell the homelier duties, and by the strength of their 
brawny arms, and hands hardened by toil, the tents were struck, and the village 
gradually melted away. Not a discordant sound was heard; they worked in har- 
mony — a lesson to their white sisters, — and before one was aware, the prostrate 
tents were strapped upon the backs of submissive ponies, together with all their 
household effects, making an inmiense pack, upon the top of which tiny papoose 
would be strapped for safe conveyance. On either side of the pony the tent poles 
were fastened, and on them placed more necessary articles for tlie long journey. 
All in readiness, each squaw would lead her pony, the rest following, and winding 
up the bluffs towards the setting sun, they would disappear. A cavalcade of gorge- 
ously arrayed chiefs and liraves would liring up the rear, eager for the anticipated 
sport. After the lapse of two or three months, they would return laden with the 
results of the chase, when a big feast would be in order, preparatory to cutting the 
grass, stacking it, and ploughing about the stacks for protection from the prairie 
fires, which in the autumn would sweep relentlessly over the i)rairie, making a grand 
and brilliant display in the dark silence of night, Init often leaving devastation in 
their path. 

The Ponca Indians, from Dakota Territory, came one winter and pitched their 
tents amongst the Omahas, to partake of their hospitality. It is the custom with 
all tribes to share with one another as long as there is any wahnuska, or bread, at 
their command. Amongst them was one stalwart young brave, who became a fre- 
quent visitor at the Agency Home, — stealing in at times, noiselessly and unobserved, 
he would sit prone upon the floor, taking in the surroundings with a pair of keen, 
observing eyes. He one day confided to our cook — who understood his vernacular— 
that he came to see his young wehah — or sister — and bewailed the fate of the In- 
dian, who could not do his wooing as his white brother was privileged to do. Of 
course the white sister enjoyed this bit of romance, which continued until the tents 
of the Poncas were struck and all jireparations made for the homeward march. Then 
came the farewell visit, but he would come again when the grass had grown just 
so high. After the promise of a letter from his sister, he begged through the in- 
terpreter that the name of a white man should be given him in place of Shilooh— 
his own — which was granted, and young Romney Leigh, tall and straight as the ar- 
row in his quiver, proudly bearing his new name, and decorated with ribbons and 
trinkets as a parting gift— so dear to the heart of the Indian— stalked out and over 
the prairie and into the far-away, forever. But it was not out of mind forever, for 


Three Years Amongst the Omaha Indians. 

an answer came to a letter, tyi>i(al of the simplicity of the Indian nature, and ran 


Ponca Agency, Dakota Territory, 

June 1(1, 1870. 

Dear Friend: I am very much pleased to hear from you. I intend to come and 
see you this summer, some time before cold weather sets in. My sister, I think of you 
all the time. It is only when I am asleep that I do not think of you. I wish you 
would answer this as soon as you receive it, and please tell me all the news, and tell 
me if there is any work for me to do, for I would like to come down there and work. 
I am very much obliged to you for giving me a white name; I like it very much. 
My sister, we have to be on our guard all the time watching our horses and our scalps, 
for we expect the Sioux to come down on us at any time. When you write, send me 
news from my father (your father); I like to hear what is doing there. 

Ever your friend and brother, 

Romney Leigh, (Ponca Indian). 

An interesting occasion was the distribution to the tribe of about $1,000 worth 
of ready-made clothing sent out l)y Friends from tlie State of Indiana. They con- 
sisted of every nec(\-<s;ny artieU' worn by men, women and children, and when they 
were unpacked mid laid upon teiiipoi-ary shelves in a hwge room of the Agency Home, 
it bore the appearance of a respectaljle dry goods store. I can never forget the day 
when about 800 Indians of all ages were congregated about our residence, each wait- 
ing his turn to receive the allotted portion. Many of the young braves would has- 
tily begin to divest themselves of their Indian garb, so eager were they to don the 
new, in which they afterwards ijresented an uncouth apiiearance. Many of the articles 
were transfomied into styles after the Indian idea of fitness of things. The feet were 
cut from the stockings, only the legs of the pantaloons utilized, etc. 

One day, when our advent at the Agency Home had been but recent, an old In- 
dian by the name of Umba, lial>l>a, or "Wolf a Day," made his appearance; it was 
after "Sick Hungry" had paid his visit and retired. Seating himself by the warm 
fire, he threw back his buttalo robe, — which was always confined at the waist by a 
rope or lariat made of buft'alo hair, — the good mother, (iisc(.vering his want of under- 
clothing, made haste to bring out a "biled shirt," so vulgarly called on the frontier, 
and handed it to him, with the promise exacted not to come again without it. Some 
days after, when snow covered the ground and the mercury fell low, he was noticed 
wending his way over the hills. Before reaching the house he sat down by the 
fence, threw ))ack his robe, and reaching for the said shirt, drew it forth; then taking 
up handfuls of snow, he gave himself a vigorous bath, sliiijied on the garment, wrap- 
ped his robe about him, and came steaming and i)uriiiig u]), his countenance arrayed 
in smiles. 

There were scenes and incidents constantly oi'euiiing alxmt us creating much 
diversion, and shortening the distance whicli separat.-d us from the far-away East. 
Such a care-free life, with its picturesque and romantic surroundings, away from the 
tiresome routine of social requirements, with glorious Nature spread out before us in 


Three Years Anion ijsf the Oii/alui hidhnis. 

ail ()|)(Mi \(iluiiic of illuminated i)ictur('s — every line a lesson of instruction — could 
one still in the .urecn pastures of life feel otlier than these excjuisite words of Long- 
fellow ex|)ress :' 

"How canst thou walk iu these streets 

Who hast trod the green turf of the prairies, 
How canst thou breathe in this air 

Who hast breathed the sweet air of the mountains?" 

We know how seutimeutal and ridiculous all this would appear to those who see 
in the Indian nature naught but the savage, with scalping knife in hand, quivering 
with murderous intent; who have long ago banished him from the face of the earth. 
But they do not realize that the Divine attribute of life in him is just as much a gift 
from the All-Father as that of their own; they forget, or have never known, the feel- 
ing of the brotherhood of man, and the duty of each to help to uplift, to inspire the 
mental and spiritual, and to direct the moral and physical into the best channels lead- 
ing to a growth and development of man and womanhood, open to all of the children 
of one God and P^ather. That the Indian is susceptible of training and mental culture 
has been proved to be the case in a far greater degree than that of the negro, at the 
schools established at 'lampton, ^'a., Carlisle, Pa., and also at several points in the 
Far West. An interesting letter from on e of the teachers at the Carlisle School runs 
tlius: "When we began this school, ten years ago, there came to it a full-blooded 
young Cheyenne from the Cheyenne Agency; he was about twelve years old. His 
father, then, was a thoroughly wild Indian, and the boy was secured while dancing 
with others around the scalp taken from the head of one of the United States soldiers. 
He willingly came to the school, when the chance offered, and after remaining eight 
years, married a Pawnee girl, who had come here just seven years before under 
somewhat the same conditions. When they married they were offered employment 
by a farmer and dairyman at West Grove, 14 miles from Philadeljjhia. They went 
there the day tlic> were married, and have lived in the same house with their em- 
ployer and his wile until last week. Mr. Harvey was so well pleased with the young 
man that he soon placed him in charge of the dairy department, which is a consid- 
erable responsibility. Amongst others, he supplied Mr. Wanamaker's great store 
with 80 quarts of cream daily." 

The following is a letter from this young Cheyenne to Captain Pratt of the Car- 
lisle School: 

"Dear Captain Pratt : We are now looking for a letter saying you will come and 
be the first to see us in our new home. If all goes well, we expect to get into it by 
the middle of next week. We claim to have the best tenant house in this county. 
If it was not for the building of a new ice house, shipping pigs and six young Jer- 
seys to the Japanese Government, we would have been in it by this time. The Japs 
are going to try their hands at this kind of stock in their country. 

"Before long we are going to have a telephone from West Grove to this house, 
and whenever you send a message by wire, it will come from there to here. 

"It seems to me this farm is growing better every day. We had another big feast 
since you were here, and this was for an Irish couple just arrived from Ireland, 
Eight roosters had to give up their lives on that day, and we had lots of cream cakes, 
deviled crabs, ( !) meats, etc. 

"This is a rainy Sunday, but I thought I would write and let you know that we 
are still in a good humor. 


Three Years Amongst the Omalia Indians. 

"We have no minister in onr eliurcli now; our former one preached his farewell 
sermon some time ago. I subscribed five dollars towards a resident one, and I do 
not know what our church men have decided." 

Where could a negro be found in the whole South wlio could dictate a more 
intelligent letter — or a heathen in a foreign land, toward whom the heart of the mis- 
sionary goes out with the most tender solicitation? Here is a missionary work for 
ns to do at home, and a very important one, fraught generally with good results. 

It has now Ix'en over twenty years >iiice my father did his good work on the 
Omaha Rcseivation. He was sincciMlfd by ntlicr aneiits who were Quakers, but even- 
tually it passed into the hands of other denominations. The Friends had at that time 
in their charge besides the Omahas, the Otoes, Pawnees, Winnebagoes, Sacs and 
Foxes, and Santee Sioux, and all have done most excellent work. We occasionally 
hear of those who were children at the time of our sojourn anidiigst them. Some 
have made their mark in the world. Frank La Flesche, a bright, beautiful boy then, 
and son of a noted chief in the tribe, lias now a responsible position in one of the de- 
partments at Washington. His sister, Suzette, who eventually married a white man 
connected with a newsi)aper in Omaha, and who took the lecture field in behalf of 
her nation, was a girl whose amiability and beauty were remarked by all who knew 
her. Her mother, though a blanketed Indian, was tall, dignified, and cjueenly in her 
bearing, and regarded by her people as one of superiority amongst the squaws. 

Towards the latter part of my father's administration as agent to the Omahas, 
a cloud came up and spread over the serene sky and darkened his hopes and sor- 
rowed his heart, so filled with a desire for the good of these people, whom he had 
learned to know and to feel an abiding interest in their future welfare. 

Before very many of the houses promised the Indians were built, and while all 
were in busy preparation for the anticipated event of a home to be called their own, 
tlie Government saw fit to withdraw part of their annuity. This at once paralyzed 
all operations and caused dissatisfaction and distrust throughout the tribe. They 
could not be made to realize or appreciate the situation; their suspicions were 
aroused: councils were held amongst themselves with white men in attendance, who 
strove to incite an uprising, and for a time it seemed as if the good work that had 
lieen accomiilished would prove of no avail. All was confusion, and there was no 
liei|) for it, thougli the situation was injurious in the extreme. Under this cloud, the 
Agent, who had most faithfully served the Government and the tribe, retired with 
sad regret at the unavoidable calamity, but with the ever-present joy of knowing 
he had benefited them, and had started them in the path leading to a more useful, 
independent and happy life. 

I trust the good work is now being carried on with otiier hearts as deeply inter- 
ested, and other hands withheld not from anv dutv iiresented. 


By Orrin C. Painter. 

(Wrillni for the Frinnis' I iileniijriirrr. Driiier. Eleventh Month. Sth . 1S9S.) 

Believiiii-' that an aerouiit of my vt'cciit visit to the (Jnialia Indian xVgency, in 
Nebrasl<a. may l>c of interest to many of your readers, 1 have conchnled to send 
you such a ih'scription. 

It will l.)e remembered by some that Dr. Edward Painter, of Fallston, Harford 
county, Maryland, was apiJoiuted, under the first administration of President Grant, 
to the office of Indian Agent on the Omaha Reservation, which he conscientiously 
filled for three years, making important changes for the better in tlie government 
of the Indians, and acipiiiing their good will to an extent as then uni)recedented. 
Added to tliis, he devoted his skill as a physician and surgeon to their service gratu- 
itously, relieving and preventing much suffering. During his service in this ca- 
]iacity he was aided by his faithful wife, Louisa Gr. Painter, and daughter, Eniilie 
Painter, (Jackson), now of Detroit. Dr. Painter and liis wife are deceased. It is 
at the suggestion of Mrs. Jackson, who is my aunt, that these lines are written. I 
am a grandson of Dr. Painter, and during this time, in 1871, made a visit of six 
months to the Agency, being then but seven years of age. Not having returned 
there for twenty-seven years, it was naturally with great pleasure that I embraced 
the opportunity, recently presented, of visiting the scenes of my youth. 

Being in Omaha, en route to Denver, from Baltimore, October 29th, I purchased 
a ticket for Pender, a small town in Thurston county, eighty-two miles north of 
Omaha, this being the most accessible point of departure for the Agency. Arriv- 
ing at my destination shortly after noon, I was solicited to patronize the "brick 
hotel," to which request I gladly acceded, being duly thankful that there was any 
hotel at all. 

I was somewhat surjirised to find the town possessed of some eight hundred 
inhabitants, the railroad thereto having been completed eighteen years ago. It be- 
ing on a Saturday, many of the farmers had come to town to lay in their supplies 
for the ensuing week, 'i'hcsi' people were of many types, Swedes, Norwegians, and 
Germans largely iircclominating, with now and then a few Indians. Nearly all 
of these farmers, and their wives and daughters who accompanied them, were 
robust and healthy-looking, and apparently well contented with their shares in life, 
the fresh, pure air of the jirairies and the bright sunlight being their chief invig- 
orators. Their teams, which were of many descriptions, were lined up in a con- 
tinuous row to the hitching posts along the sunny side of the main street, while 
purchases were made and social amenities exchanged, some remaining to patronize 
the entertainment to be given in the Opera House that evening, at which would be 
freely distributed "watches, lamps, hams, flour, etc." 

I arranged with the local livery stable keeper to start on my drive overland 
next day, which was the first day of the week. The triji, I found, would be a dis- 
tance of twenty-five miles, farther than I had calculated, as I had never been this 
way before. The morning dawned cold and windy, but thanks to the kindness of 


A.N I>I>IA.N TKl'Ki:. 

A Visit to the Omalia Agency, Nebraska. 

the county sheriff, who loaned me his big fur overcoat, which I wore over mine, 
and his cap, I was soon comfortably prepared for tlie journey. 

•'Xow, Shades of the Past, reveal yourselves!" I tliought, as we started over 
the uiiduhiting sea of land in a carriage behind a fine team of young, unshod 
horses. My driver proved to be an experienced guide and hunter, and in this I was 
very fortunate, as the roads over the prairies, many of which are arbitrary Indian 
trails, branch off in all directions. I soon found that he depended mostly upon 
the position of the sun for his bearings, and was told that tlie Agency lay due 
east, and about five miles from the Missoiiri river. 

The trip carried us up hill and down, many times, over good, hard roads, over 
gullies filled with snow, and over little frozen streams. Rarely was a white or an 
Indian seen in the early part of the journey. From my pilot I learned that the 
Reservation extends some 30 miles from west to east and 20 miles north to south. 
The nortliern part is occupied by the Winnebagoes, antl the southern by the Oma- 
has. These tribes are in number almost eipial, there being about 1,200 of each. As 
to their death rate, I was told that tli<' pujnihition remains in equilibrium and that 
the most prevalent diseases are pneunidiiia and consimiption, which are doubtless in 
many instances caused by undue exposure. 

As the morning wore on, the wind died down and the sky Vtecame cloudless, 
being of that deep blue which causes us to feel that heaven is not so far off as it 
sometimes seems. Now and then we passed a lone Indian grave on the summit of 
a prairie. These consist of small sheds having one or more openings. The Indians 
adhere to their old custom of building sIumIs over tlieir dead instead of burying 
them. The remains are wrapped in the best bhuiki't of the deceased, and together 
with his tomahawk and some other belongings, are laid at rest. Food is carried to 
the grave at intervals and inserted in the apertures until a time has elapsed when 
it is supposed that the newly risen s]iirit has progressed beyond the need of earthly 

We at lengtli began to distinguish the l)lnfts of Iowa in the distance and saw 
the Missouri winding between. As we approached we paused occasionally to ad- 
nure the scene, which was one of trancjuillity on that beautiful Sabbath morning. The 
environs also told me that it was a matter of a short while when I should behold 
that sacred spot where I had spent my hapi^iest days. What my feelings were when 
we had ascended the last prairie may be better imagined than described. There, 
nestling among the cotton-woods in the valley, lay my beloved old home, just as I 
had left it twenty-seven years ago! It was a dream of peace such as I have seldom 
realized. One has only to recall events of a similar nature in his own experience in 
order to aiipreciate my sensations. 

Wisliing not to lose a moment's time in walking over the familiar ground, I 
alighted with my kodak, and began to make exposures as I advanced. Upon reach- 
ing my goal I found everything in an excellent state of preservation, with a number 
of additions and changes. The i^reseut residents of the cottage I found to be Mr. W. 
A. Gait and wife, the former being the pastor of the pretty little Presbyterian church 
standing on the opposite prairie, on the site of the old blockhouse which was re- 
moved four years ago. Since its erection this amiable gentleman, yet young in 
years, has made his abode at the Agency. His wife was no less hospitable, and 
extended us a cordial invitation to dine, which we gladly accepted. During the re- 
)>ast I was informed of many matters of interest, all of which would be too long to 
recite. 'Sir. Gait described to me the useful purposes which the large and handsome 
brick school house nearby had served the Indians, which structure I had already 
observed. This, he said, was originally intended to meet the requirements of a hos- 



A Visit to the Omaha Agencij, Nebraska. 

pital, but that the Indians had little or no faith in the white "medicine man," and 
(•()iis('(|nently its functions in that capacity were abandoned. He cited the instance 
ot an Indian who liad been shot, stating that the doctors had wished to remove the 
bnllet by surgical means. To tliis his friends objected, following the advice of their 
own i)hysician by making frequent applications of cold water to the injured limb. 
By this incnns tlie l>ullet became encysted and the services of the white medicine 
man were triuiiiphaiitly dispensed with. Occasionally, when a case became too ag- 
gravated to >icl(l 1() tlieir treatment, the subject was handed over to the hospital 
authorities as a hist i-(-soi-t. 

After (liuni'r we took our (lei)arture, with expressions of gratitude for courtesies 
received. We then drove farther tlown into the village, and I met an old friend by 
the name of John Peebles. He was a friend of Grandfather, and we reviewed the old 
times togetlier. I was told that Captain W. A. Mercer is the present Indian Agent, 
making liis ix'sidence with the Winnebagoes, ten miles uoi-th. Mr. Peebles escorted 
us to (iiie lit the liuts, whicli is inhabited by an old cliief with a queer name, An- 
glicized as "Raljlnt." ^V description of the interior of this hut would be of interest, 
were it describable. A sul)lime disregard for all neatness and order prevailed. His 
squaw was seated on the floor in a corner of tlie room, baking cakes on an open fire, 
as we entered. She arose to greet us, altireil in a manner which evidently indicated 
that she luid not been exi)ecting company. A l)an(hige around her head confined her 
unruly locks, and her di'ess was staine<l with ail the shades that grease could 
give it. Shortl>- aftei', ••Ral)bit" himself ap|ieared, who was not much better off 
in respect to clothing, one oi- two Imttoiis lia\-iiii; great responsibilities imposed upon 
them. This chief remembei-e(l (irandfatliei- and me, and so did liis squaw, and upon 
my showing them old views taken in that vicinity, they became (luile sociable and ex- 
pressed themselves freely through Mr. Peebles, who acted as interjireter. One of the 
photographs I showed this brave was that of his brother, "Waii-nns lie qie-rab-be," 
who has since <lied, and I promised to send him a du])licate of my own. 

Before leaving I gathered some prairie flowers, altliougli inu( h withered, as re- 
minders of my visit, the same kinds which I had nuiny tinn's galliered in all their 
beauty and freshness in days of yore. Time had jjassed very jileasantly for three 
and a half hours, and at 3 P. M. we turned our team westward toward Pender. We 
took another road returning, and on this I was enabled to see much more of the 
Indians' present mode of living. I saw but seven "tee-i)ees,"'in isolated ]ilaces, with 
smoke ]iictures(|uely curling from openings in their to]is. At one of tliesv I dismounted, 
and seeing no one ai-ound. called at the dooi- of the tent for its occupant to come 
out. This Indian, whom I had aroused, proved to be a policeman, as I discovered 
fi'om his badge. After making a few inquiries, I allowed liim to return to his 
slumbei-s, at the same time fancying what an ideal existence such a life would afford 
officers of our own police force. 

I perceived that small frame houses and log huts commonly constitute the al)0(les 
of the Indians, near which are generally located thatched sheds for liorses and cat- 
tle. Tliey have, to a great extent, given up their tent-life with the advance of civil- 
ization, although for sunnner use the tepee remains much in favor. Many of them 
l»ossess fine teams and wagons, ten or more of which we passed, the chiefs and their 
S(|uaws ))eing generally seated in front, while in the reai', on a bed of straw, sat other 
members of the tamily. Some of the girls seemed to bear a fair claim to good looks, 
xvhich they doulitless thought to be enhanced by the tattoo mai-ks on theii- foreheads. 
As usual, they held their shawls close over their heads and about their faces. Paint- 
ing of the face is generally confined to their elders, and in some cases a bright red 
line marks the part of the hair of the squaws. They all seemed to be heading in the 


A Visit to tlie Omalia Agency, Nebraska. 

direction, from which I inferred that they eonteniph^ted attending a pipe dance, 
or some other festivity. 

I was told that they are fairly well paid by the Government for their lands, and 
that, as a rule, they are not disposed to overwork themselves. Corn seemed to be the 
staple mostly under cultivation, and around these fields barbed wire fences were 
erected to prevent the entrance of cattle. The most thrifty farm I saw was that of 
"John Big Elk," who is a representative worthy of emulation. 

The distance to Pender gradually shortened, and I was informed that we were on 
one of the highest prairies we had ' ' dumb, ' ' and that we should soon reach our ' ' des- 
ignation." The sun had set and we had covered fifty miles of prairie roads. Venus 
stood sentinel over the grave of the sun, and in the east the moon rose full, as though 
disputing the right of her domain. 

Thus ended a most pleasant experience, and one never to be forgotten.